SBI3U Grade 11 Biology Plants Test Plants Unit Test Study Notes Plants have vascular tissue and different reproduction compared to protists Types of Plants: Non-Vascular Plants – No stem, leaf, or root structures -Obtains nutrients through diffusion -Requires moist environment to get water Vascular Plant – Have leaves and stems -Transfers nutrients within plants -Uses spores under leaf to reproduce if it’s seedless Gymnosperms -Specifically designed to survive winter by having specialized leaves to keep water moisture -Reproduces with cones carrying gametophytes Angiosperms -Uses flowers and fruits to carry gametophytes (seeds enclosed in them) -Uses pollen and wind to go into others to reproduce Monocots -Angiosperms with 1 seed leaf (embryos on the underside of the leaf) Dicots Angiosperms with 2 seed leaves Plant seed Plumule: tiny leaves above epicotyl: embryonic leaves > First Leaves Epicotyl: upper part of the seed > upper stem
Hypocotyl: upper part of the seed > lower stem Radicle: lower part of embryonic seed > roots Cotyledons: one of 2 immature leaves in the embryo, energy source > Leaves Seed Coat: surrounds and protects seed, prevents water loss > breaks away and decomposes Hilum: white line on the seed wall, ovaries of the plant Micropyle: a small hole near the hilum which allows for pollen to enter for fertilization Seed coat: protects the seed Food supply: stores the starches, oils, and other nutrients for the embryo Monocot Properties: -One Cotyledon -Parallel seed veins -Stem vascular bundles scattered -Flower pedals multiples of 3 Dicot Properties: – 2 Cotyledons -Net like leaf veins -Vascular bundles arranged in a ring -Flower pedals multiple of 4 Vascular Tissues – Specialized for transportation -Tubes Translocation: the movement of material from one part of the plant to another Xylem: -Moves water up -Long hollow tube of Non living cells
-fluid passes through “Pits” of regions Tracheids: tapered end of pits Vessel Elements: Pits with constant width Phloem -Living cells -Companion cells -Sieve Tube elements -Sieve Plates -Multidirectional -Transports Sugars Methods of translocation Root Pressure -Osmosis -High solute in water near end of root -Osmosis has the higher water concentration in soil to go into root Capillary Action/Cohesion Tension -Water sticks with other water molecules -When they leave the stomata, it clings with another water molecule, and the entire strand is pulledup, bringing water up. Mass Flow Theory -Sugar goes into the phloem -Reduces the concentration of water in the phloem -Water rushes into the -Pressure builds up and moves the water upwards Dermal Tissues -Outer layers
Guard Cell: surrounds the stomata to control it are open or close Stomata: opening for gas and water exchange Ground tissue Parenchyma Cells: guard cells for storage, photosynthesis, and secretion Collenchyma Cells: thick walls for mechanical support (New plants, open for growth) Sclerenchyma Cells: thicker walls for more support (matured plants) Transpiration: water that evaporates from the leaves. 99% of water lost through transpiration Leaf Structure Role -Convert energy to food through photosynthesis -Contribute oxygen into the atmosphere -Shade -Provides food for decomposers Cuticle -Waterproofing -Non-living, waxy layer -Blocks everything from passing through Epidermis -External layer, protects the interior tissues -Responsible for making cuticle Stoma -Pore for gas exchange and food transpiration -Protected by guard cells allowing water to flow -Seals to keep moisture on hot day for example -Guard cells are swollen due to high concentration of water inside, less water outside, and the water isescaping. The cell is full of water so it’s full and closes the stoma
Spongy Mesophyll -Gives off oxygen and has empty space to store oxygen -Picks up carbon dioxide and filters air Vascular Tissue -Xylem and Phloem -Conduct water and dissolved minerals -Monocot: parallel -Dicot: Net like pattern Palisade -tall cells that stand upright -chloroplasts and does photosynthesis Stems Stolon: stems horizontally above ground, nodes drop down to touch the ground to absorb water. (Net- like roots with large parts, potatoes) Rhizome: underground horizontal stems that are long and thin (long carrot like) Tuber: large sections of rhizome stems (potatoes) Corm: bulbous underground structures (Radishes) -Water transportation -Support for holding up leaves -Protection Young Dicots -centralized vascular bundles -soft pith and cortex -Large cortex -Pith soft similar to cortex Cortex: irregularly shaped, thin layer under bark
Turgor: water filled pith and cortex will expand the stems and supports the plants Roots -Anchor the plant in place -Absorb water and nutrients -Prevent soil erosion -Store starch Order: Zone of Maturation > Zone of elongation > Meristematic Region > Root Cap Epidermis: layer of cells without chloroplasts to protect and absorb liquids Root Hairs: protection and increase surface area for absorption Cortex: Bulk amount of cells that stores nutrients with large vacuoles Endodermis: uniform linked cells around the inner bundle. -Ensure that the interior of the cell is having items filtered out before it enters Vascular Cylinder : vascular tissue clumped in the center that contains xylem and phloem, delivering nutrients up to the upper parts of the plant when required. Fibrous roots: net like with fibers Tap roots: long strand with hairs around it (Carrot) Plant Hormones -Some plants grow in soils that are depleted of Amino Acids (contains nitrogen) and will need tocapture other prey to sustain nutrients Meristems: certain parts of the plants that are actively growing -Has unspecialized cells for plants Apical Meristems: meristems at the bottom of cells that grow downward Lateral Meristems: growth of the plant width wise creating cylinders of new cells – Vascular Cambium: produces xylem and phloem – Cork Cambium: creates hard outer coating Hormones: a chemical manufactured by specialized tissues on one part of the body that affects another part of the body.
-Targets tissues with these hormones specialized for each type of external factors -Based on external factors, each hormone is triggered Growth Promoter Hormones Auxins: controls the elongation of cells -Key for phototropism -When there is light, the cells on the opposite side will start to elongate, pushing the plant towards thelight source -Auxins will inhibit root elongation -Auxins help mature the plant -Commercial Use: promote root growth, prevents ripening of fruits, and seedless fruits Gibberellins: works with auxins -Make cells wider -Made in apical meristems and chloroplasts -Fruit, flower, and leaf development -Commercial Uses: sprayed onto grapes to make them seedless, hence they’re wider Cytokinins: made in roots -does cell division and allows cell specialization -Commercial uses: sprayed on flowers to keep fresh Growth Inhibitor Hormones Abscisic Acid: Growth inhibitor -Blocks growth by closing stoma -Blocks promoting hormones -No production of sugars -used in plants during transport to prevent water loss Ethylene: causes fruits to ripe -spreads to ripe other plants as well
-Commercial Uses: picked before ripening, uses CO2 to simulate ethylene to ripe them before sales Tropisms Phototropism: plant’s growth in response to light Gravitropism: plant’s response to gravity Thigmotropism: plant’s response to touch Chemotropism: plants response to chemicals Hydrotropism: plant’s response to water, moves near to water Soil -Sunlight, Air, Nutrients Nitrogen: gives plants their dark green color Potassium: builds strength and disease resistance Magnesium: required for photosynthesis Sulfur: helps plants make new cells Phosphorus: development of roots and seeds Calcium: healthy cell walls Soil: broken rocks, decomposed matter, and active living things Humus: decomposing organic matter to -bind mineral particles -retain water -breaks down other nutrients -spaces in soil allows for air and water, and space for animals -Living organisms can be decomposed Photosynthesis : Carbon Dioxide + Water -> (light energy) glucose + oxygen -Glucose contains CO2, reflects the environment’s concentration of CO2 -Trees that die off will release the carbon dioxide they’ve absorbed back into the atmosphere
Succession Primary Succession: begins with a new environment with just a few rocks -Takes longer -Rocks > mosses > ferns > pines > beeches & maples -Deciduous trees Secondary Succession: when succession begins with an existing community of trees -Shorter time -Living Trees > Stumps > weed > aspen, beeches > returns to climax -Soil created from glaciers when a large block of ice drags along dirt and soil up to another region,allowing it to sustain life when temperature permits Climax: consisting of ideal soil, water, and temperature conditions that support the growth of certain vegetation -Named after their main vegetation in that area Tundra: long winters, short summers, low precipitation Boreal Forest: long winters, short warm summers, and more precipitation Deciduous Forest: mild winters, hotter summers, precipitation average -Deforestation: Habitat Loss, altering water cycle, erosion, CO2 levels, climate change Plant Technologies: Artificial Selection: to pick out only certain number of traits to remove or maintain a favored trait -Better market, storage, genes, and traits Mass Selection: take the seeds with the best performance and grow them the next season Pure Line Selection: mate certain types of plants to make desired traits reproduce (think Mendel) Crossbreeding: combine 2+ desired traits to create a plant with traces from each trait Hybrids: combining 2 parents to have 4 different traits -F2 generation seeds are unpredictable for which may be desired traits, thus, they need to buy newseeds Cloning
– reproduction through asexual methods to produce the same plants every time Tissue Culture: take meristem tissues and culture them so they’re identical and plant those Gene Transfer technology: move a really desired gene, snip it out of a species, then import it into another plant where that plant will receive that information and carry out that instruction Monocultures: Growing the same plant throughout the entire field -bad diversity -prone to pests -depletion of soils Technology for improving soil fertility Crop Rotation: Legumes and bacteria that fix nitrogen have a relationship. These microorganisms transform atmospheric nitrogen into a form that plants can utilize. If legumes are planted one year, thenitrogen content of the soil will be increased for the growth of non-legume plants the following year. Farm Manure Technology: Manure applied to soil to replenish the nutrients. -Retain water -Smell, bacteria, and expensive Commercial Chemical Fertilizers: man made chemicals with nutrients -Pollute water supply by supplying too much nutrients to algae -Too much burns plants Technology for pest removal Mechanical Control: involving catching, picking, or pulling unwanted pests Cultural Control: planting certain plants that attract pest predators to protect and surround plants that require the protection Sex Attractant Control: creating infertile male pests that will fertilize with females but reproduce infertile eggs Biological Control: release pathogens, diseases to kill pests -plant plants that produce natural pesticides Hydroponic Culturing: grow plants in water so pests can’t grow in water. Nutrients dissolved in water
Aeroponic Culturing: soil enclosed in containers, plants are suspended in the air to prevent pests from getting in.