Psychology Exam: chapters 11-14 Biopsychosocial Model: States diseases are caused bua combination of Health Psychology : Uses behavioral principles to prevent illness and promote biological, psychological and social factors. health Behavioral Medicine: Applies psychology to manage medical problems. Behavior Risk Factors: Life (style Diseases are Diseases related to health damaging persona Ihabits Examples Behavior Risk include Factors heart are Disease, behaviors stroke, that increase AIDS thechances of disease, injury or premature death. Stress - Mental and physical condition that occurs when a person must adjust or adapt to the environment unpleasant wents: Work pressure Eustress: Good stress Travel and dating Stress Reaction Physical response to stress Autonomic Nervous system is arcused Stress, Illness, and your Immune System: Immune System: Mobilizes bodily defenses like white blood cells against invading microbes and other diseases, regulated in part by the brain. Psychonarroimmunology: study of connections among behavior, stress, disease, and immune system. When is stress a strain Stressor Condition or event that challenges or threatens the Person pressure: when apersen must meet urgent external demandsor expectations Scanned with CamScanner
Appraising Stressors: Primary Appraisal: Deciding if a situation is relevant or irrelavant, positive or threatening. 'Am I OK, or in trouble ?" Secondary Appraisal: Deciding how tocope with a threat or challenge Assessment of resources, "what cant do about this situation. Appraisal influences our ability tocope. The Nature of Threat: perceived lack of control is Justas threatening as an actual lack of control. Feeling of incompetence increases threat Coping with Threat: Emotion - Focused coping: Trying to control one's emotional reactions to the stressful situation Useful in dealins with uncontrollable stressors. Problem- Focused Copines: Managing or remedying the distressing situation Useful in dealing with controllable stressors. Traumatic Stresses: May Produce psychological injury or intense emotional pain Examples: War, terture rape, plane crashes, natural disasters, street violence. Symptoms: Nightmares flashbacks insomnia, irritability, nervousness, numbing depression Increases feelings of vulner ability helplessness, loss of control. Recommendations For Coping: I identify your feelings and talk to others about your fears and concerns. Think about Skills that have helped you overcome adversity in the part and apple them to the present. Continue to do things that you enjoy and that make ife meaning ful. Get support from others. Give yourself time to heal. Conflrets: A stressful condition that occurs when aperson must choose between contradictory needs, desires, motions, or demands. Approach-Approach conflicts ? choosing between two desirable, or positive alternatives. Easiest to resolve, decision (usualiy) quickly made.
Ausidence. - Avoidance Conflicts: Being forced to choose between two negative or undesirable alternatives Defined by personal values and needs Between a rock and a hard place" NOT choosing may be impossible or undesirable Difficult choices may lead to inaction, indecision or freezing people May also choose to escape on" Leave the field". pproach - Ausidence conflicts Being attracted (drawn to) and repelled by the same goal or activity Attraction keeps person in the situation but negative aspects can cause distress. Ambivalence: Mixed positive and negative feelings central characteristic of approach- avoidance conflicts May result in partial approach Multiple Conflicts: Multiple Approach - Avoidance conflicts When several alternatives have positiveand negative features Vae illation : when one is attracted to both choices Seeing thepositive and negatives of both choices andigoing "back and forth before deading, if deciding atall Defense Mechanisms proposed by sigmind Freud Habitual and unconscious psychological processes designed to reduce ankidy work by avoiding, denying or distorting sources of threat or ambiety If used short term can helpus get through every day situations If used long term, we may end up nothining in reality protect idealized self-image so wecan live with ourselves. Some defence mechanisms are Denial which is refusing to accept or believe an unpleasant reality usually occurs with death and illness. Repression which TS when perinful memories, anxietics and so one are held out of our awareness Reaction Formation: Impulses are repressed and the opposite behavioris exaggerated The Scanned with CamScanner