Anastasiya Shak 5/17/2023 William Koch Critical Thinking 100 Suppressed Premises 1. Britney Spears is under age thirty five. Therefore, she cannot run for president of the United States. 1. Britney spears is under age thirty fiveSp2. No one that is under 35 years old can become president3. She cannot run for president of the United states 2. Nixon couldn’t have been president in 1950 because he was still in the Senate. 1. Nixon was still in the Senate in 1950, and the conclusion is that he could not havebeen president in that year. 3. 81 is not a prime number, because 81 is divisible by 3. 1. 81 is divisible by 3 Sp2. Any number that is divisible by 3 is not a prime number 4. There’s no patient named Rupert here; we have only female patients. 1. We have only female patientsSp2. Only male patients can have male names like Rubert3. There are no patients that have the name Rubert. 5. Columbus did not discover the New World because the Vikings explored Newfoundland centuries earlier. 1. The Vikings explored Newfoundland before Columbus arrived. Sp2. Discovering something requires being the first to find it.3. The speaker is using accurate dates for the Viking exploration and Columbus's arrival.4. The statement is based on historical facts. 6. There must not be any survivors, since they would have been found by now.
1. If there were survivors, they would have been found by now. Sp2. The speaker is referring to a specific event or situation where survivors are expected. 3. The search for survivors has been thorough.4. The absence of survivors is the most likely explanation.5. The speaker is knowledgeable about the search and rescue operations.6. The statement is based on current information and does not account for future discoveries. 7. Lincoln could not have met Washington, because Washington was dead before Lincoln wasborn. 1. Lincoln and Washington lived in different time periods. Sp2. Washington died before Lincoln's birth. 3. Meeting someone requires both people to be alive at the same time. 4. The speaker is referring to a physical meeting, not a spiritual or metaphorical one.5. The statement is based on historical facts and not on speculation or conjecture. 8. Philadelphia cannot play Los Angeles in the World Series, since they are both in the NationalLeague. 1. The National League teams cannot play each other in the World Series. Sp2. Philadelphia and Los Angeles are both National League teams. 3. The World Series only features teams from different leagues.4. The speaker is knowledgeable about the rules of the World Series. 5. The statement is based on current information and does not account for any possible future changes. 9. Mildred must be over forty-three, since she has a daughter who is thirty-six years old. 1. The daughter's age is a reliable indicator of Mildred's age. Sp2. The daughter is Mildred's oldest child. 3. Mildred had her daughter when she was at least seven years old.4. The speaker has accurate information about the daughter's age.5. The speaker is using reliable math. 10. He cannot be a grandfather because he never had children. There is only one suppressed premise in the sentence. 1. In order to be a grandfather, one must have children who have children of their own. 11. That’s not modern poetry; you can understand it. 1. Modern poetry is typically difficult to understand.
12. Harold can’t play in the Super Bowl, because he broke his leg. 1. Harold wants to play in the Super Bowl. This would mean that the fact that he cannot play due to his injury is a disappointment or setback for him. Sp2. Playing in the Super Bowl is important to Harold. 3. Harold's broken leg makes it impossible for him to play football. 4. Harold was scheduled to play in the Super Bowl. 5. Harold is a professional football player. 13. Shaquille must be a basketball player, since he is so tall. 1. Being tall is an advantage in basketball. This would mean that the fact that Shaquille is tall is evidence that he is a basketball player, since height is a desirable trait in that sport. Sp2. Shaquille is male. This would mean that we would assume that basketball is a sport playedprimarily by men, and therefore Shaquille is more likely to be a basketball player than a womanwould be. 3. Shaquille is a professional athlete. 4. Shaquille is most likely well known. 5. The speaker has a limited understanding of Shaquille's identity. 14. Dan is either stupid or very cunning, so he must be stupid. 1. Being cunning is not a desirable trait. Sp2. Dan is not very successful.3. The speaker has a limited understanding of Dan's personality or behavior.4. The speaker is biased against cunning people.5. The speaker is using faulty logic. 15. Susan refuses to work on Sundays, which shows that she is lazy and inflexible. 1. Working on Sundays is a necessary or desirable trait. Sp2. Susan's job requires her to work on Sundays.3. The speaker has a limited understanding of Susan's religious or personal beliefs.4. The speaker is biased against people who do not work on Sundays.5. The speaker is using faulty logic.
16. Jim told me that Mary is a professor, so she can’t be a student, since professors mustalready have degrees. 1. Being a student is a lower status position than being a professor. Sp2. All professors have degrees.3. All students are working towards a degree.4. Jim is a reliable source of information.5. The speaker has a limited understanding of Mary's situation. 17. This burglar alarm won’t work unless we are lucky or the burglar uses the front door, so wecan’t count on it. 1. The burglar is unlikely to use the front door. Sp2. The speaker has a limited understanding of how the alarm works. 3. The speaker has a negative attitude towards the alarm.4. The speaker is using faulty logic. 18. His natural talents were not enough; he still lost the match because he had not practicedsufficiently. 1. Natural talent is not enough to win a match. Sp2. Practice is necessary to win a match. 3. The athlete had potential to win.4. The athlete did not take the match seriously.5. The speaker has knowledge of the athlete's situation.