Comparative Study Of Creative Economy In The World The creative economy has become a new discourse in the global economy. Although the creative economy does not have a single definition concept (UNCTAD, 2015a), it can be simply defined that the creative economy is built from the interaction between creativity and ideas that are realized along with the intellectual property that includes them which can then be monetized (Habib, 2021). This policy is then further interpreted as a new economic wave that not only involves creativity, but also cultural focus which includes the creative economy (Greffe, 2016), digital media involvement (Benghozi &; Paris, 2014) and also heritage conservation (Bertacchini & Segre, 2015). Global data shows that the creative goods market reached $509 billion in 2015. This figure has almost doubled from 2002 which only reached 209 billion dollars (UNCTAD, 2018). The creative performance of the industry, driven by three main sectors: design, fashion and film, showed that the numbers also increased. Fashion items, for example, contribute at least 54 percent of creative goods exports. The dominance of the Asian market for fashion is increasing, especially in new fashion centers (Seoul, Shanghai, Hong Kong, Bangkok, Taipei, Tokyo) with variations between street-ware to high-end fashion that continue to grow. In line with Asia, Latin America and Africa are also increasingly recognized as emerging market epicenters for fashion, including in Brazil, Chile, Nigeria and South Africa. The creative services subsector is also showing rapid development. Business models (Rozentale &; van Baalen, 2021) that connect academics and the business world reflect the managerial complexity of a business. When the business was specifically drawn in the field of creative services, the concept of increasing service customer hospitality with ideas and creativity began to emerge (Shin, Hakseung R.Perdue, 2022). In its application, creative services are still very difficult to measure and regulate. Creative services are developing along with digitalization and the sharing economy . This condition causes the complexity of creative services that usually do not stand alone such as in the creative goods sector and the performance industry. However, the fact that creative services trade showed an average growth stability of 4.3 percent during 2011 to 2015 in developed countries causes optimism that the
creative services sector will always be maintained on a positive trend (UNCTAD, 2018). Although trends show the great potential of this industry, but in applications in the field, it is still far from expectations. Several countries have made various efforts to improve this sector, but policies that are still not firm and not total cause limited applications in the field. For example, China, although clustering of the creative industry sector has been carried out and encouraged to be independent, in reality, the expected efficiency in policy implementation has not been achieved (Zheng & Chan, 2014). On the other hand, almost all countries have seriously developed the creative economy and its derivative sectors considering the large economic potential in the sector. In addition to economic motives, the creative economy is also a showcase for a country, which facilitates cultural identification and diplomacy in their international relations. South Korea is a successful example of a country that has excelled in managing this sector. History records that at the G-20 summit, South Korea brought their " Gangnam Style" to this summit (Mundy, 2012). In addition, the creative products of other countries become an interesting note which later becomes the identity of the country. For example, Dorama (Japan), Kdrama, Kpop (South Korea), Bollywood (India) and Harajuku (Japan). These countries make cultural products and creative products as a symbol of the strength of a cultural product that cannot be separated from the monetarization of their sector. Indonesia as one of the countries taken into account in the G-20 has also initiated a focus on this creative economy. Symbolically, as a manifestation of the seriousness of creative economy development, the Indonesian government in 2011 formed a special unit for creative economy which was merged into the Ministry of Tourism. Kemenparekraf is here to facilitate the development of the creative economy in Indonesia (Pascasuseno, 2014). The Ministry of Tourism and Creative Economy which has been more than 10 years, although it has contributed to accelerating the creative economy sector in Indonesia, in fact has not helped the growth of the creative industry sectorally. Challenges to sector development in Indonesia include striving to safeguard copyright, state policies that benefit artists or creators and producers of the creative economy, and the economy.
In 2001, the world recognized the term Creative Economy, through a book by John Howkins entitled " The Creative Economy: How People Make Money from Ideas ". Howkins' idea was born after realizing the enormous value of U.S. exports only from the sale of International Property Rights (IPR) products. This made Howkins curious to study the product more deeply, until then he realized that times have changed a lot (Howkins, 2013) One of the implications of the growth of the Internet is that the world is increasingly connected. It changes human behavior in communication, commerce, and other activities. Nowadays, it is very easy for someone from Indonesia to buy products from Japan or Korea. All you need is an internet connection and access to a website or app that buys and sells stuff. Everything is now in our hands. Ordering and payment can already be done online and courier delivery also has an efficient process, so the possibility of purchased goods not arriving is very small. Based on this, Howkins found that the economy no longer only requires hard work by carrying out repeatable processes, but also creativity and innovation so that economic growth works faster. Therefore, in the creative economy, cooperation of many parties is needed, namely quality human resources, private parties and the government, each of which can contribute to encouraging economic growth in the economy in general Skilled human resources are needed to develop different ideas. However, this idea cannot be easily realized without the capital support provided by the private sector. However, economic (commercial) activities cannot run well without proper regulation, so the role of government is also important in ensuring that ideas can be realized and executed in an orderly manner and without fraud in their implementation (Howkins, 2013). Furthermore, the attachment of the creative economy to the economy, culture, technology, and social is defined as: The process of increasing added value resulting from the utilization of intellectual property in the form of creativity, expertise, and individual talent in a product that can be sold. (Institute of Development Economics and Finance, 2005) 1. Creative industries are industries that focus on the creation and exploitation of intellectual property works such as art, film, games or fashion design, and
include innovative business-to-business services such as advertising (Simatupang, 2007). 2. Creative industries are industries that originate from the utilization of individual creativity, skills, and talents to create welfare and employment opportunities through the creation and utilization of individual creativity. From the description above, it is clear to see the subject of creative economy products that show their abstract nature. How an idea is packaged into a product is the entry point of the sector's vulnerability in the context of the extent to which a product is produced by different manufacturers but derived from the same idea. This concept was later realized as the basic concept of standing copyright.