Anatomy 201 Study Guide for Exam 1 The first exam for Anatomy 201 will take place on Tuesday, September 27 th . You will be tested on Chapters 1, 2, 4, 5, 6,7 and 8. View the study guide below to see which concepts are covered from each chapter. We will most likely test on the My Lab. Please make sure you have access to a compatible laptop by this date. Introduction to Anatomy (Ch. 1) 1. What are the assumptions made when describing an individual anatomically? ANATOMICAL POSITION : The body is facing up, feet flat on the floor, arms at side with palms up. ** UNLESS STATED OTHERWISE, THEY ARE ALWAYS REFERRING TO THE BODY IN AN ANATOMICAL POSITION ** 2. What does anatomy include? surface, gross, micro, developmental etc. Be able to recognize examples of each. Microscopic Anatomy- Anatomy cannot be seen with the naked eye. Need a microscope. Includes specialty of: - CYTOLOGY – study of cells -HISTOLOGY- Study of tissues Gross Anatomy (also called macroscopic anatomy)- Can be see with the naked eye and can be approached through: -Surface Anatomy - general form of superficial markings -Regional Anatomy - superficial and internal features -Systemic Anatomy -structure of major organ systems. (Ex: respiratory system, cardio, integumentary. Etc.) OTHER SPECIALTIES OF ANATOMY: -Developmental Anatomy – examines changes in form that occur between conception and physical maturity >>Embryology: Studies the processes that occur between the first 2 months of development -Comparative Anatomy- Comparing similarities and differences of different animals OTHER GROSS ANATOMICAL SPECIALTIES IMPORTANT IN MEDICAL DX: -Clinical Anatomy- Anatomical features that undergo characteristic changes during illness. -Surgical anatomy- studies anatomical landmarks important for sx procedures
-Radiographic Anatomy- utilizes x-rays, US scans, or other procedures performed on an intact body to visualize anatomical structure -Cross sectional anatomy- Uses CT, Spiral CT scans to visualize anatomical structure 3. Be completely familiar with all directional terms and regional terms including planes of reference. MAIN DIRECTIONAL TERMS: Distal > Proximal Anterior>Posterior Ventral >Dorsal Cranial >Caudal Medial> Lateral Deep>Superficial Inferior>Superior PLANES: -Sagittal Plane: divides into left and right halves Midsagittal: divides into EQUAL left and right halves Parasagittal: divides into UNEQUAL left and right halves. -Transverse (Horizontal plane) : divides into inferior and superior -Coronal Plane (Frontal plane): divides into anterior and posterior parts - SERIAL RECONSTRUCTION Allows us to analyze complex structures. The sectional views change as the plane approaches the curve.
4. Know the abdominopelvic quadrants and regions and which organs would most likely be found in each quadrant. Abdominopelvic quadrants divide the abdomen into 4 SECTIONS : -RUQ: R lobe of liver, gallbladder, R kidney, portion of stomach, small and large intestine -RLQ: Cecum, appendix, portions of small intestine, reproductive organs (R ovary and R spermatic cord) , R ureter. -LLQ: most of small intestine, portions of large intestine, L ureter, reproductive organs (L ovary and L spermatic cord) -LUQ: L lobe of liver, stomach, pancreas, left kidney, spleen, portions of large intestine Abdominopelvic regions divide the abdomen into 9 SECTIONS: -TOP : R hypochondriac region, Epigastric region, L hypochondriac region -MIDDLE : R lumbar region, Umbilical region, L lumbar region - BOTTOM: R inguinal region, Hypogastric region, L inguinal region What is a serous membrane? Where can we find one? Function?
Serous membrane : a thin membrane that lines the internal body cavities and organs such as the heart, lungs, and abdominal cavity . The serous membrane allows for frictionless movement in several vital organs. 5. Know the difference between the visceral and parietal layers a serous membrane. Visceral layer - covers the enclosed organs Parietal layer -lines the body wall 6. What do the terms pericardium and pleura stand for? Pericardium: Serous membrane covering the heart Pleura: Shiny, slippery serous membrane that lines each cavity and reduces friction 7. What is the peritoneum? Peritoneum- Serous membrane that lines the peritoneal cavity. Parietal peritoneum - lines the body wall Visceral peritoneum- covers the enclosed organs Mesenteries - double sheets of peritoneum that suspend organs such as the stomach, small intestine, and portions of the large intestine within the peritoneal cavity. They provide support, lubrication, blood supply and stability while permitting limited movement. 8. What is the mediastinum? Know location and contents. Mediastinum: part of the thoracic cavity Located: thoracic cavity in between the lungs and pleural cavities Contains: esophagus, trachea, thymus, major blood vessels, and the pericardial cavity (chamber that surrounds the heart) 9. Know the body cavities.
Thoracic cavity -L pleural cavity (L lung) -R pleural cavity (R lung) -Mediastinum (trachea, esophagus, major vessels) -Pericardial cavity (heart) Abdominopelvic cavity -Abdominal cavity (liver, stomach, spleen, kidneys, pancreas, small intestine and most of large intestine) -Pelvic cavity (bladder, reproductive organs, last portion of digestive tract) -Peritoneal cavity *Thoracic and abdominopelvic cavity are separated by the diaphragm * 10. Be familiar with each system in the body; Be able to match its name with it general function and know the organs present. I think some important ones to know are: Nervous system: immediate responses Skeletal: formation of blood Endocrine: long term changes Urinary: regulates PH Muscular: locomotion Cardio: transport 11. What are the clinical procedures used to observe anatomy ( see pg. 25-26 text.) Xray’s , CT scans, DSA, MRI, Spiral CT, US Radiodensity: Resistance to X-ray penetration
The Cell ( Ch. 2) 1. Know the Cell Cycle and Steps of Mitosis . I(GO SALLY GO) PPMATC INTERPHASE- G G1 Growth, duplication of organelles, protein & ATP synthesis. S DNA replication G2 Further growth and check that no mutations occurred in S phase. LAST MINUTE PROTEIN SYNTHESIS OCCURS IN THIS STAGE Prophase- DNA condenses By the end, chromosomes start forming, Nucleolus & nuclear membrane starts disappearing by the end. Spindle fiber formation starts. Metaphase- CHROMOSOMES LINE UP IN THE MIDDLE OF THE CELL Nuclear membrane and nucleolus has disappeared, Spindle fibers have formed, 2 types of spindle fibers occur chromosomal fibers that are attached to chromosomes at the centromere & continuous fibers that join the 2 poles.
Chromosomes having two chromatids are seen, Chromosomes align themselves on the equatorial plate due to contraction of spindle fibers. Amphiastral mitosis occurs in animal cells & anastral mitosis occurs in plant cells. Anaphase- Shortest phase. Chromatids are pulled to opposite poles of the cell by the mitotic spindles Telophase- Nuclear membranes reforms Mitotic spindles disappear Chromosomes have reached the poles, Uncoiling of chromosomes occur, Nucleolus and nuclear membrane reappear, Spindle fibers disappear. 2 nuclei are formed by the end Cytokinesis: The cell into 2 daughter cells. Osteology ( Ch. 5, 6 and 7) 1. What is spongy bone? How does it differ from compact bone? How is it the same? There are two types of adult bone: compact bone and spongy bone. Compact bone is relatively dense and solid, whereas spongy bone is trabecular or cancellous bone. (Porous bone) arranged in parallel struts. -compact bone: Functional unit of mature compact bone is the cylindrical osteon. -both have the same matrix composition, but they differ in 3 dimensional arrangement of the osteocytes, canaliculi and lamellae. The major difference is the arrangement of spongy bone into parallel struts or thick, branching plates called TRABECULAE. *Compact bone is heavier, better at resisting forces parallel to the bone. Spongy bone is lighter, better at resisting forces from more than one direction at the same time* 2. What are trabeculae? How are they organized? - Trabecular bone (a little beam ”), also called cancellous bone, is porous bone composed of trabeculated bone tissue. - Trabeculae are parallel struts or thick branching plates. 3. What are the general functions of the skeletal system? -Support (structural support) - mineral storage (Calcium is the most abundant in the human body) -blood cell production(RBC, WBC, PLATELETS are produced in red marrow)
-protection (ex; the ribs protect the heart and lungs) -Leverage-(they change the magnitud and direction of the forces generated by Skeletal muscle. 4. Be familiar with the structure of compact bone including all the terminology (for example the osteon and its components which include but are not limited to lacunae, the types of lamellae, canaliculi, periosteum, endosteum ( The Haversian System) The osteon-The functional unit of a mature compact bone is the cylindrical osteon “ Haversian system ” - (basic cylindrical-shaped structural unit of a compact bone) Components: Each osteon consists of concentric layers, or lamellae, of compact bone tissue that surround a central canal, the haversian canal. The haversian canal contains the bone's blood supplies. Lacunae: a small space containing an osteocyte LAMALLAE-layers of CALSIFIED MATRIX Concentric lamellae: circular plates of the mineralized extracellular matrix of increasing diameter or surrounds a network of blood vessels and nerves located in the central canal (“bulls eye target”) Interstitial Lamellae: Fill in the spaces between the osteons in compact bone. Circumferential Lamellae: A third type of lamellae found in bone, occur at the external and internal surfaces of the bone. Such as HUMERUS OR FEMUR. Canaliculi-radiate down the matrix from lacuna to lacuna. Connect lacunae and bring processes of neighboring osteocytes into close contact. Periosteum-A connective tissue wrapping that is connected to deep fascia. (COVERING THE OUTSIDE OF BONE)-ISOLATES AND PROTECTS THE BONE FROM SURROUNDUNG TISSUE. Actively participates in bone growth and repair. Endosteum-inside the bone a cellular endosteum lines the medullary cavity. This layer is only one cell thick and is incomplete layer, it contains osteoprogenitor cells and covers the trabeculae of spongy bone-active during the growth of the bone and during repair or remodeling is under way. 5. What are the layers of the periosteum? What is the role of each layer? It has 2 layers. 1-Fibrous layer-outer layer of dense fibrous connective tissue 2-Inner osteogenic layer-containing osteoprogenitor (stem cells). -When a bone is not undergoing growth or repair few osteoprogenitor cells are visible within the cellular layer. Where do we find the endostum: 6. Be familiar with osteocytes, osteoclasts, osteoblasts, and osteogenic cells and the role that each play in the bone cycle.
Osteocytes – mature bone cells that are surrounded by hard bone matrix. Maintain and monitor mineral content, minerals in the matrix are continually recycled. Osteoclasts (“chewers”) -are large multinucleate cells that help dissolve the bony matrix through the process of osteolysis. Always removing matrix and releasing calcium and amino acids Osteolysis: the pathological destruction or disappearance of bone tissue. Osteoblast (“builders”) -Cuboidal cells found in a single layer on the inner or outer surface of a bone. Secretes organic components of the bone matrix called OSTEOID responsible for making new bone “osteogenesis”. Osteogenesis: making of new bone Osteogenic(also called stem cells): repair bone fx, cells divide to produce daughter cells that differentiate into osteoblasts. 7. What is bone matrix? What is the basic composition of bone matrix? Calcium phosphate converts to hydroxypatite crystals-calcium phosphate makes up 2/3 of the bone mass, hydroxyapatite crystals reisis compression. What is osteoid? - -organic components of the bone matrix produced by osteoblasts and ostecytes. What is a chondrocyte?cartilage cells Where do we find chondrocytes? -in the cartilage 8. What are long bones, short bones, flat bones, and irregular bones? -Long bones: are relatively long and slender, they have a diaphysis, two -metaphyses, two epiphyses and a medullary cavity. Long bones are found in the upper and lower libs. Ex: humerus, radius,ulna, femur, tibia and fibula. -Short bones: are boxlike in appearance. Their external surfaces are covered by compact bone, but the interior contains spongy bone. EX: carpal bones(wrist), and tarsal bones(ankles). Flat bones: have thin roughly parallel surfaces of the compact bone. A flat bone resembles a spongy bone sandwich such bones are strong but relatively light. - Flat bones form the roof of the skull and the sternum, the ribs and the scapulae. They protect underlying soft tissues, (parietal bones) -irregular bones-have complex shapes with short flat notched or ridged surfaces. Their internal structure is equally varied.ex: The vertebrae that form the spinal column and several bones in the skull. 9.What is a sesamoid bone? The sesamoid bone is usually small, round and flat. They develop inside the tendons and are most often encountered near the joints at the knee, the hands, and the feet. Few individuals have sesamoid bones at every possible location, but everyone has sesamod patellae or kneecaps.
What is a sutural bone?- Sutural bones are small flat oddly shaped bones of the skull along the sutures. They develop from separate centers of ossification. (skull) 9. What is the epiphyseal plate? The epiphyseal plate (or epiphysial plate, physis, or growth plate) is a hyaline cartilage plate in the metaphysis at each end of a long bone. It is the part of a long bone where new bone growth takes place; that is, the whole bone is alive, with maintenance remodeling throughout its existing bone tissue, but the growth plate is the place where the long bone grows longer 10. Epiphyseal line? An epiphyseal line is an epiphyseal plate that has become ossified. Can be detected after epiphyseal growth has ended. 11. What causes the difference in these two? When is the human life cycle do we see each of these? From fertilization to about 8 weeks of age 12. What are the parts of long bone? -they have a diaphysis 2 metaphysis, two epiphyses and a medullary. Ex: humerus, radius, ulna, femur tib and fib. 13. What are the parts of a flat bone? -Roof of the skull (parietal bones), the sternum, the ribs, the scapulae. 14. How is spongy bone organized? Made of cells called osteocytes (arrangement of spongy bone into parallel struts or thick branching=TRABECULAE What are trabeculae? -Connective tissue partitions that subdivide an organ. What is so special about them? Gives spongy bone considerable strength. Bone marrow here? Yes, spongy bone=blood cell formation ex: femur Be familiar with the location and function of red and yellow bone marrow. How do they differ? Adipocytes (yellow marrow) energy reserve, or a mixture of mature and immature red and white blood cells and the stem cells that produce them (red marrow) such as: cell formation in spongy bone of the femur. Where do we find each in adults? -Found in the medullar cavity - (be specific) 15. What is hemopoiesis? - the production of blood cells and platelets, which occurs in the bone marrow. Also called hematogenesis. 16. Where in the bone does it occur? Bone marrow Which adult bones continue this process? -(flat bones) --->Bone marrow, sternum, ribs and pelvis sternum, vertebrae, iliac bones, and ribs sternum, vertebrae, iliac bones, and ribs 17. Be familiar with all the bone markings and their definitions including, but not limited to fossa, foramen, condyle, process, trochanter, tubercle, tuberosity, meatus, canal, etc. WATCH POWERPOINT 18. How is bone formed? Osteoblasts are responsible for new bone =osteogenesis What is endochondral ossification? *HAPPENS WHEN CARTILAGE ALREADY EXISTS* Hyaline cartilage model in which bone replaces cartilage . begin to migrate into the epiphysis region and replace cartilage with bone. What is intermembranous ossification? *HAPPENS BEFORE CARTILAGE IS
FORMED* Mesenchymal cells differentiate to form osteoblasts. Osteoblasts begin secreting matrix. 19. Which bones are formed this way? Clavicle, mandible skull and face. 20. How is the spinal column organized? How do the vertebrae differ? Capable of flexion, extension, rotation, lateral flexion. 21. Be familiar with primary and secondary curvatures, and the abnormalities in spinal curvature. Round back =flexion of the spine Kyphosis (hunchback)-------- scoliosis: and lordosis =hyperextending the back1 (duck) 22. Scoliosis? 23. How many of each vertebra? -cervical 7, thoracic 12, lumbar 5. 24. How do we classify the attachment of ribs? True ribs(vertebrosternal) and false ribs (vertebrochrondal) 25. Which ribs are attached to the sternum? Upper first seven pairs To costal cartilage? Which to vertebra? 8-10 are false ribs and don’t attach dire ctly to the sternum . 26. “Floating" the last 2 pairs of ribs float 11-12 27. What is bone remodeling? Osteocytes are continually removing and replacing the surrounding calcium salts. 28. What is osteoporosis? Rickets? Vitamin D deficiency, malabsorption of calcium. Poor calcification of bones, bone deformities 29. How can bone be strengthened? calcium, a,c and d 30. Know in detail how the male and female differ in the skeleton. -size and shape of the bones.female-smaller lighter bones. Male-bigger and heavier bones. 31. Know in detail how the male and female pelvises differ. The main anatomical diff – adaptation for childbearing, pelvic is larger in females , sacrum curve-less curvature in females than in males, pelvic is wider in females, punic angle is >100 in females and <90 in males. 32. Know all of the bones of the axial and appendicular and the markings that are prescribed in the given packets (except the one or two I may have eliminated). This
is an anatomy class! ( Also, studying this will help you for the practical) 33. Know all the subtypes of synovial joints, their structure, and examples. Freely movable joints , gliding joint, pivot joint, saddle joint, hinge joint,
ellipsoid joint, ball and socet joint. Examples - book page 209 Articulations (Ch. 8) 1. Be familiar with the various types of joints by classification and their range of motion: What are the subtypes for each? Use the chart in you PowerPoint and text to review definitions and examples!! Joints: also known as articulations , exist wherever two or more bones meet. Joints are classified by ROM and structure ROM
Synarthrosis: Immovable. Bony edges are close together and may even interlock. Strong joints are located where movement between bones must be prevented. Held together by dense, irregularly arranged connective tissue EX: sutures in the skull, gomphosis (joint between teeth and jaw bones) Amphiarthrosis: Slightly movable joints. Stronger than a freely movable joint. Articulating bones are connected by collagen fibers and cartilage. Held together by fibrous cartilage, hyaline cartilage or fibrous connective tissue (a ligament) EX: Symphysis, Syndesmosis Diarthroses (also called synovial joints): Freely movable Contain a fluid filled cavity between the bones of the joint. Have synovial membrane and synovial fluid. Immovable and slightly movable joints are more common in the axial skeleton, and freely movable joints are more common in the appendicular skeleton. 2. Be able to draw and label a synovial joint. What is the bursar? Bursae (singular, bursa) : small, fluid-filled (synovial fluid) pockets in connective tissue that reduce friction and act as shock absorbers. -Form where a tendon or ligament rubs against other tissues and are found around most synovial joints, such as the shoulder joint. -Often connected to joint cavity but may be completely separated from it. 3. What forms synovial fluid? What is the function of this fluid? Synovial fluid is produced by the synovium . Total amount of synovial fluid in any joint is normally less than 3ML. FUNCTIONS: 1. Lubricate/Reduce Friction: thin layer covers the inner surface of the joints, layer lubricates. Substances hyaluronan and lubricin in synovial fluid reduce friction 2. Nutrient Distribution: Whenever the joint moves, synovial fluid circulates within the cavity and articular cartilages to nourish the tissues, distribute dissolved gases, and remove wastes. When the joint compresses the cartilage, synovial fluid and the dissolved gases and waste are forced out of the articular cartilages. When the joint allows the articular cartilage to expand, the fluid and all the dissolved gases and nutrients are pulled back into the cartilages. 3. Shock absorption: cushions joints that are subjected to compression. For example, the hip, knee, and ankle joints are compressed during walking, and they are severely compressed during jogging or running. When the pressure suddenly increases, the synovial fluid absorbs the shock and distributes it evenly across the articular surfaces. 4. What is the difference between monoaxial, biaxial and triaxial joints? Recognize examples of each.
- Monaxial (movement in one plane) EX: elbow, ankle. - Biaxial (movement in 2 planes) EX: Ribs and wrist. - Triaxial (movement in three planes) EX: shoulder and hip 5. Be able to describe the synovial joints and give an example of each type (focus: Hing, Pivot and ball and socket) Hinge Joints: Permit angular motion in a single plane, like the opening and closing of a door. Description: Monoaxial; Movement: Angular Motion Examples: Elbow, Knee, Ankle & Interphalangeal joints Pivot Joints: Permit rotation ONLY. Description: Monoaxial; Movement: Rotation Examples: Atlanto-axial joint , proximal radioulnar joint Ball and Socket Joints: the round head of one bone rests within a cup-shaped depression in another. Description: Triaxial; Movement: Angular motion, circumduction, rotation. Examples: Shoulder joint & hip joint 6. Know the TMJ, what are vertebral disks and how do they function? the specifics of the knee joint (why is unique? What features are usually torn during an athletic injury? What are bones and ligaments of shoulder joint. TMJ: Temporomandibular Joint , synovial joint between the mandible and the mandibular fossa of the temporal bone and the condylar process of the mandible. This hinge joint allows elevation, depression, protraction, retraction, and slight right and left movements. Easily disjointed because there is only a couple of ligaments hold it in place.
Intervertebral discs: made of fibrous cartilage, separate adjacent vertebrae and transmit forces between adjacent vertebrae. Outer fibrous part ( anulus fibrosus )- tough outer layer of fibrous cartilage Inner gelatinous mass- ( nucleus pulposus )- The nucleus pulposus is a soft, elastic, gelatinous core, composed primarily of water (about 75 percent) with scattered reticular and elastic fibers. The nucleus pulposus enables the disc to act as a shock absorber. 2 FUNCTIONS: 1) to separate individual vertebrae 2) transmit the load from one vertebra to another 7. What are ligaments? What role do ligaments play in joints? Ligaments: a short band of tough, flexible fibrous connective tissue which connects two bones or cartilages or holds together a joint. >provide strength, hold bones to gether, make sure joints don’t twist, provide stabilit y/support, prevent bones from dislocating. REMEMBER: LIGAMENTS ARE BONE TO BONE. TENDONS ARE BONE TO MUSCLE 8. What is a fibrous capsule? Fibrous capsules are composed of thick fibrous connective tissue, which forms a protective sleeve around the joint. 9. What are some pathologies of joints that we discussed in class? Rheumatism: pain and stiffness affecting the skeletal system, muscular system or both
Arthriti s: includes all rheumatic diseases that affect synovial joints. & Involves damage to the articular cartilages. Bursitis: the bursa becomes irritated and swollen with extra fluid. Overuse is the most common cause, but injuries, infections and other conditions, such as arthritis, can cause bursitis. Sprains/strains Dislocation 10. What is kind of joint in the epiphysial plate? The pubic symphysis? Be able to answers questions like this. 12. What is a bone “dislocation”? A bone dislocation is when a bone slips out of a joint 13. How does Gouty arthritis differ from osteoarthritis and Rheumatoid Arthritis? Rheumatoid arthritis usually affects small joints and osteoarthritis usually affects large joints. Gout affects small joints initially and then spreads to involve large joints. Pain becomes worse in the evening, in osteoarthritis while the pain is worse in the mornings, in rheumatoid arthritis. Histology (Ch. 3) 10. Be familiar with the major tissue types and their characteristics. Tissue: made up by combination of cells. It’s a group of specialized cells and cell products that work together to perform a specific function. 4 types of tissues : epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous tissue FOCUS ON 1 FOR THE TEST: EPITHELEAL TISSUE EPITHELIAL TISSUE Function: physical protection from abrasion, dehydration, destruction by chemical or biological agents. controls permeability, provides sensation, produce secretions -includes epithelia and glands Epithelia: Sheets of the cells that cover every exposed body surface and line any internal cavities and passageway. - Cells in epithelial tissue are bound closely together -They have a top ( APICAL SURFACE ) & bottom ( BASAL SURFACE ) -Apical surface has microvilli (increases surface area and promotes absorption) & cilia (move substances on the apical surface) -Nucleus is towards the base -DOES NOT CONTAIN BLOOD VESSELS (Avascular)
-Can have 1 or more layers -Continuously replaced by stem cells -covers exposed surfaces -lines internal passageways and chambers -produces glandular secretions There is 2 ways to identify epithelial tissue: 1) shape OR 2) number of layers. 1) SHAPE -Squamous : thin, flat “squished nucleus” -Cuboidal: cube shaped cells- centered round nucleus -Columnar: longer than they are wide and nucleus is at base 2) LAYER -Simple: 1 layer (usually found in protected areas such as the internal compartments of the body) -Stratified: 2 or more layers (usually found where there is mechanical or chemical stresses) DIFFERENT TYPES Simple Squamous Epithelium Consists of very delicate cells ( it’s the MOST delicate epithelium in the body ) Location : simple epithelium lining body cavities ( called mesothelium ), the heart& blood vessels ( called endothelium ), portions of kidney tubules, inner lining of cornea, alveoli of lungs. Functions: reduce friction, absorb and secrete material, control vessel permeability. These are the ones that look like “eggs” Stratified Squamous Epithelium Located (in places were mechanical stress and dehydration are potential problems): Surface of skin, lining of oral cavity, throat, esophagus, rectum, anus and vagina Function : protection against abrasion, pathogens, and chemical attack May be keratinized or nonkeratinized Keratinized = tough and water resistant Nonkeratinized= also resists abrasion but must be kept moist or it will dry out and deteriorate. Surface layer is always composed of flattened cells. Difference between the skin and oral cavity stratified tissue is that the tissue in the skin is keratinized and the one in the oral cavity is Nonkeratinized. Simple Cuboidal Epithelium Located: thyroid glands, ducts, kidney tubules
Function: secretion, absorption, very LIMITED protection Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium *This type of cell is RARE Located : ducts of sweat glands Function : secretion, absorption, protection Simple columnar epithelium Located : lining of stomach, intestines, gallbladder, uterine tubes, collecting ducts of the kidneys Function : secretion, absorption, protection Height is greater than their width Stratified Columnar Epithelium RARE Location: pharynx, epiglottis, anus, mammary glands, salivary glands, urethra Function : protection Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar Epithelium Location: nasal cavity, trachea, bronchi Function: protection, secretion Nucleus unevenly layered Transitional Epithelium Consists of many layers (fewer layers than in stratified squamous epithelium) Combination of cuboidal and “oddly” shaped cells Location: urinary bladder, renal pelvis, ureters Function: ability to stretch extensively without damaging the epithelial cells – permits expansion and recoil after stretching
11. Know the various types of cells found in each type of tissues. Epithelial tissue has squamous, cuboidal, columnar, transitional, and epithelial cells Gland cells: epithelial cells that produce secretions, substances produced in and discharged from the cell. 12. Know where in the body the different types of tissues are typically found. Answered in question #10 13. What are exocrine glands? What is their morphology? Function? Examples? Exocrine glands : glands that release their secretions onto an epithelial surface through epithelial ducts. 3 types of exocrine glands - Serous glands: Secrete a watery solution that usually contains enzymes, such as the salivary amylase in saliva - Mucous glands: secrete glycoproteins called mucins that absorb water to form a slippery mucus , such as the mucus in saliva.
- Mixed endocrine glands: contain more than one type of gland cell and may produce both serous and mucous secretions Glands can either be UNICELLULAR or MULTICELLULAR Unicellular: secrete mucins Two types: goblet and mucuous cells. Multicellular: secrete mucins, produce secretory sheets 14. What are endocrine glands? Endocrine glands: ductless glands that release their secretions by exocytosis directly into the interstitial fluid surrounding the cell that diffuse into the blood. Release hormones (hormones: regulate or coordinate activities of other tissues, organs, and organ systems.) 15. From which type of tissue are they derived?
Epithelial tissue 16. Be familiar with the types of endocrine glands and the various methods by which they organized. Pineal gland: controlling circadian rhythm Pituitary gland: “ master gland ” senses the body's needs and sends signals to different organs and glands throughout the body to regulate their function and maintain an appropriate environment. Thyroid gland : producing and releasing (secreting) certain hormones. Your thyroid’s main job is to control the speed of your metabolism (metabolic rate), which is the process of how your body transforms the food you consume into energy. Adrenal gland : makes steroid hormones, adrenaline, and noradrenaline. Pancreas: It makes pancreatic juices, which contain enzymes that aid in digestion, and it produces several hormones, including insulin. Ovary/testis: produces reproductive cells 17. What are the methods of glandular secretion? A glandular epithelial cell may use one of the 3 methods to release its secretions Eccrine secretion(Merocrine): sensory product is packaged into secretory vesicles, is released through exocytosis onto the surface of the cell - Most common mode of secretion - Found in salivary glands Apocrine secretion: secretory product is released during the shedding of the apical portion of the cell’s cytoplasm, which has become packed with secretory vesicles. gland cells then undergo regrowth and produce additional secretory vesicles - Found in mammary glands Holocrine secretion: destroys the gland cell . During holocrine secretion the entire cell becomes packed with secretory products and then bursts apart. Secretion is released and the cell dies. Further secretion depends on gland cells being replaced by stem cells found deeper within the epithelium
18. What are the characteristics of mucous and serous membranes? Where are they found and what do they produce? ANSWERED IN QUESTION #13 19. .Be able to distinguish mesothelium and endothelium. Mesothelium - simple epithelium that lines the body cavities Endothelium -simple epithelium that lines the heart and blood vessels 20. What do we mean by the polarity of epithelial cells? -Epithelia is polar (has differing functions of the apical, basal and lateral surfaces, the organelles and other cytoplasmic structures within epithelial cells are distrusted unevenly between the exposed and attached surfaces) 21. What is and where do we see a basal lamina? What kind of tissue is always below the basal lamina? Basal lamina: superficial portion of the basement membrane consists of the basal lamina, which is secreted by epithelial cells. Region is dominated by glycoproteins, proteoglycans, and a network of fine microfilaments. Function: restricting movement of proteins and other large molecules from the underlying connective tissue into the epithelium.
Deep (under/inferior) to the basal lamina lies the reticular lamina. Reticula lamina: contains bundles of coarse protein fibers that anchor the basement membrane to the underlying connective tissue **CONNECTIVE TISSUE IS ALWAYS BELOW THE BASAL LAMINA** 22. What are the junctions found in epithelial tissues? Why are they there? ( We studies these junctions in Chapter 2- go back and review-however they pertain to histology) Gap junctions (channel forming ): two cells are held together by two interlocking transmembrane proteins called connexons. Connexons form a narrow passageway that lets small molecules and ions pass from cell to cell. Tight junctions (also known as occluding junction): two membranes tightly bound together by interlocking membrane proteins. Inferior to the tight junctions, a continuous adhesion belt forms a band that encircles cells and binds them to their neighbors. Prevents the diffusion of fluids and solutes between the cells. These junctions are usually on the apical (top) of the epithelial cell Desmosomes: CAMS and proteoglycans link the opposing plasma membrane together . Desmosomes are very strong and can resist stretching and twisting. CAMS: transmembrane proteins that interconnect large areas of opposing plasma membranes to each other and to extracellular materials.
Hemidesmosomes: attach an epithelial cell to extracellular structures, such as the protein fibers in the basement membrane. this attachment helps stabilize the position of the epithelial cell and anchors it to underlying tissue.
23. What is a goblet cell? What role does cilia play in the respiratory tract? Goblet cells: a type of unicellular gland (mucous cells) They are called goblet cells when found in the mucosa of the small intestine, large intestine, terminal bronchioles, and conjunctiva. They care called mucous cells when they are found in the stomach mucosa, respiratory mucosa, and salivary glands. Cilia in the respiratory tract beats in a coordinated fashion to move mucus from the lungs towards the throat. The mucus traps particles and pathogens (disease causing organisms) and carries them away from the lungs.