CHAPTER 1 Communication the Process of creating meaning through sympolic interation communication IS a process communication is relational communication is symbolic Linear communication model with noise: any force that interferes w/ the Sender Message accurate reception oF a message Encodes Decodes (external noise, physiological noise, psymological noise) Uner Communication a sender encodes feelings 3 ideas into a message conveyed to a receiver, who Transactional Communication model decodes it. with Communicator's Communicator's Environment Environment Messages Responds Decodes D Decodes Responds Communicator Communicator snows that people usually send 3 recieve messages simultaneously vocab: media communication mechamsms (phones etc) channel: a method by which a message is conveyed between people. (face-to-face, media) environments: Physical settings where the communication occurs and the personal perspective of parties involved. feedback: a communicators response to another's message.
Types of communication Interpersonal Communication communicating with oneself Dyodic communication: two people interaction Small-group communication each person can Participate activety ml the other metwoers. Organizational comminication Large collections OF people who work together to achieve goals. (i.e., commercial ( corporation) nonproft, political, health related, and recreational.) Public communication occurs when q group becomes to large W all members to contribute; generally characterized by an unequal amount It speaking among members Mass communication messages transmitted to longe widespread avdiences Vig electronic s print media (websites, magazines, tv, YAdio, etc.) Social media communication Communication Competence communication competence : alchieving one's goals in ol manner that, idrally, maintains or enhances the relationship in which it occurs. There is no "ideal" way to communicate Competence is situational varies from one situation i person and another. Competence is relational Something we do with others than to them. Competent communicators are empathic Cognitive complexity : apility to understand issues from a variety 0¥ perspective Comprience can be learned Competence requires hardwork Competent Communicators self-monitor
Competence communicators are committed MISCONCEPTIONS about commutation MYTH: communiation requires complete understanding MYTH: Communication is a good thing MYTH: meanings are in words MYTH: Communication is simple MYTH: More communication is always better
Chapter 3. The self, perception, and communication 3.1 Communication and the self self concept : a set OF largely stable perceptions individuals have of themselves Self-esteem: evaluations of self-worm Biology, personality i the self personality characteristic eways you mink and behave across a variety or situations To some extent, genes determine personality 40% 0₹ personality traits IS inherited You can do a great deal to control how you actually communicate External Influence on the self-concept Identity IS snaped not only by genetics but by communication w/ others reflected appraisal describes the influence OF others on one's self-concept. Social comparison evalvating yourself in comparison to others Cultural and the Self-concept cultural assumptions influence what people think about themselves is others For ex Someone who looks antactively thin 8 healthy to an American might look Stressed 3 unwell to a Jamaican Cultural dynamics have powerful implications for communication Self-Fulfilling Prophecies The self-concept both snapes and is snaped by communication 14 for example, your self-concept involves feeling "nervous wl authority", you'll probably benave in a nervous way during job interviews OY an interaction w/ a professor.
The nervous penavier is likely to invivence now others view you which will snape how they respond to you The response may reinforce that aspect 07 your self-concept et your self-concept affecting your future behavior * Self Fulfilling prophecy: occurs when a person's expectations of an outcome Subsequent behavior make the outcome more likely to occur Example: you expect to be nervous at an interview and that causes you to answer poorly. you anticipate having a good (or terrible) time at a party, and you act in ways that fit your prediction your teacher explains a task, saying you won't do well, you get in your head is as a result you don't try nard. your friends describe someone you are about to meet, saying you won't like the person you then LOOK for - and find - reasons to dislike the new aquaintance. Two types of self-futrilling propnecies: I. those that influence your own behavior a. ex) psyching yourself up into playing better 2. those affect the behavior of others a ex) teacher- student behavior, Place pas responding favorably 3.2 Perceiving others how perceiptions influence communication perception the way people regard others 3 the world around them
Steps in the Perception Process 1. selection pay attention to some stimuli while ignoring others. personal goals also snape now people make sense of others. ex) someone on the lookout for romance will esp. be aware to a tractive potential partners. emotional state also snapes what you selet. ex) if you're happy about your relationsnip, you're more likely to interpret your Partner's behavior in a charitable way; vise versa 2. Organization arranging this info to make meaning From it. Psychologists call this the figure-ground principle Figure 2.2 cigit of perception A classic illustration of this principle is the drawing in Figure 32 Which do you see Year assess will depend on how you mentally organized the image In sim- information about others' appearance and behavior affects how you think about Are year othered Age? Skin color? FIGURE 3.2 Which do you - fine the have the image online environments provide less nonverbal information than is available in person, so what IS available is highly influencial. 3. Interpretation intrepreting them in a way that makes sense to you. plays a role in virtually every type of communication how you make sense of things may lead you to conclude that a person who Smiles at you across a crowded room is interested in romance or, conversely is simply being polite. Table 3.1
influcences on Perception Physiological Factors 1. developmental stages a. it may be developmentally normal for a younger child to behave in ways that would seem egocentric, seltish, i uncooperative in an adulti a 4yr old wouldn't notice that adults are weary OF reading the same storybook over 3 over. 2. Health is nutrition a. when your ill or have been working long hour, the world can seem quite different than wne you are well rested. 3. Biological cycles a. people have daily cycles in which all sorts of changes OCCUR including variations in body temperatures, sex drive, alertness, tolerance to stress, and mood. These cycles can affect the way they relate to others. Some difference in percerption are vooted in neurology Stereotypes Stereotypes: widely held but oversimplified or inaccurate ideas tied Social categorization gendered expections Sex and genaer aren't the same Sex: a biological category (i.e., male, female, intersex) gender. socially constructed set of expectations about what it means to be "masculine, remining, transgender" gender matrix: recognizes gender as a multidementional collection of avalities. race and etnnicity also influence our igenties is perceptions of others, influencing communication. implicit bias: unconsciously held associations about a social group
microaggression: categorizing people according to their apperence. Relational Roles roles like daughter, roommate, spouse, Friend affect your perceptions The Power of Narratives Narratives: stories people create to help make sense of the world. Common Perceptual Tendencies attribution: the process of attatching meaning to behavior. 1. Clinging to First impressions 2. categorizing people 3. Judging ourselves more charitable than we judge others self-serving bias: the tendency to judge others narsely but cast oneself in a favorable light uncnaritable attitudes towards others affect communication!! 4. Paying more attention to negative impressions than positive ones. negative bias: tendency to focus more on negative impressions than postive ones 5. Overgeneralizing halo effect: perceiving others in a positive light on the basis of a single positive trait or experience. horns effect: perceiving others in an unfourly negative light on the loasis of a single negative trait OF experience. 6 Gravitating to the Familiar.
Empathy Empathy: ability to imagine another person's perceptic Dimensions of empathy 1. perspective taking : temporary adopting the viewpoint 04 another person- attempting to view the issue as the person does. i requires sening your own opinions and suspending judgment. 2. emotional experience understanding what the person is feeling 3. genuine concern; caring FOY another person. * not the same as sympathy (Feeling compassion FOY someones predicament) Perception checking perception checking 1. reference a specific behavior 2. offer two options 3. ask the person to tell you what they were (or are) Feeing. Emotional intelligence emotional inteurgence ( II) : the ability to understand and manage yosar own emotions & aeal efrectively w/ the emotion 0 others. five aemensions: 1. self-awareness: understanding how you Feel 2. Self-regulation: managing emotions effectively 3. In ternal motivation: finding the inner strength and determination to accomplish important goals.
4. Empathy involves being wining and able to imagine a situation From a another person's point of view. 5. Solial Skills perceived self a reflection OF the self concept i it is the person you believe yourself to be in moments of honest self-examination unlikely to reveal this part of yourself to another person presenting self a public image; the way you want to appear to others - Face : the socially approved identity that a communicator presents AND facework: verbal $ nonverbal ways people maintain their own presenting image 3 the image of owners! I dentity management: Strategies used by communicators to influence the ways others view them. Characteristics: 1. People have multiple identities 7. Identity management is collaborative 3. Identity management can be conscious or unconscious - frame Switching: adopting different perspective based on cultures and situations in which you Find your self. - scripts: habitual behaviors people have developed overtime 4. People differ in their degree of Identity Management. high self-monitors pay close attention to their own benavior - to others reactions adjusting their communication to create a desired impression -low Self-monitors: express what they are thinking - Feeling w/o much attention to the impression their behavior creates