Defining Security - Security: Measures taken by states to ensure the safety of their citizens, the Protection of their way of life and the survival of their nation state - But security is an intensely contested idea - Many analysts have critiqued the focus on traditional security – protections from Violence through a strong military - They want to see the security agenda widened to include a broader set of threats to Human well-being: poverty, disease, environmental harm, etc. The Evolving Nature of Security - Moving beyond debates about how to define it, security has evolved in important ways in Past few decades - From state to non-state-based threats - In the type of warfare: Symmetric to asymmetric warfare - In the technological sophistication of warfare Nuclear Non-Proliferation - One of the single most prominent inter-state security issues in global politics today - International efforts have centered around controlling existing stocks of nuclear weapons And preventing their spread to non-nuclear states Impacts of Nuclear Capability? - Deterrence: nuclear weapons decrease the likelihood of conflict between two nuclear- Armed adversaries because of the assurance of catastrophic loss on each side - Less optimistic perspectives
- Human error cannot be avoided, and nuclear weapons raise the cost of that human Error enormously - Weapons could fall into the hands of non-state actors who do not care about Consequences of their use - Having such weapons could allow states to circumvent or ignore international law And will of global community International Non-Proliferation Efforts - Partial Test Ban Treaty: International agreement to ban above ground nuclear detonation - Strategic Arms Limitation Talks I and II: Efforts to gradually reduce the number of weapons Held by the two major nuclear powers, U.S and U.S.S.R (Now known as Russia) - Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of nuclear weapons or NPT: Came into force into 1970 And has been extended indefinitely. Seeks to facilitate cooperation in peaceful use of Nuclear technology and gradually seek nuclear disarmament.