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Name: Cruz Landry Date: 03-08-2022 Student Exploration: Identifying Nutrients Directions: Follow the instructions to go through the simulation. Respond to the questions andprompts in the orange boxes. Vocabulary: carbohydrate, disaccharide, lipid, monosaccharide, polysaccharide, protein, starch Prior Knowledge Questions (Do these BEFORE using the Gizmo.) 1. What are the major types of nutrients you can get from food? Carbohydrates (CHO), lipids (fats), proteins, vitamins, minerals, and water are the six mainnutrients. 2. How are these nutrients used by your body? Carbohydrates, proteins, and fats are the three primary nutrients that the body uses tofunction. These nutrients break down into smaller components during digestion. Energy isobtained from carbohydrates (glucose). After being broken down into fatty acids, fats are usedas a source of energy. Gizmo Warm-up Have you ever wondered what is in your food? Scientists use a variety oftests to determine the nutritional content of food. You will learn four ofthose tests with the Identifying Nutrients Gizmo. 1. Below the Food samples label, drag tube A into the Food sample holder . Below the Benedict test , click the Test button. What is done in the Benedict test? It was heated in a water bath for f minutes after solutionswere added. 2. The Benedict solution is a test for monosaccharides ; simple sugars like glucose or fructose (fruit sugar); and some disaccharides such as lactose and maltose. In contact with these sugars, the Benedictsolution turns from blue to green to orange. For simplicity, we willconsider the Benedict test a test for monosaccharides only. Does Sample A contain these sugars? yes Reproduction for educational use only. Public sharing or posting prohibited. © 2020 ExploreLearning™ All rights reserved
Note: Sucrose (table sugar) is a disaccharide that is not detected by the Benedict test. Foods sweetened only with table sugar will show a negative Benedict test. Activity A: Identifyingnutrients Get the Gizmo ready: ● Click Reset . ● Drag Sample A into the Food sample holder . Introduction: Most food is composed of three types of molecules: carbohydrates , proteins , and lipids . ● Carbohydrates such as starches and sugars are major source of energy. Simple sugars are found in sweets and fruits. Starches are found in potatoes, cereal, pasta, flour, and other plant products. ● Proteins are used in body structures such as muscles, skin, and hair. Rich sources of proteins include meats, dairy products, and beans. ● Lipids (fats and oils) are used for energy, insulation, and as an essential building block of cells. Meats, dairy products, and oily plants such as olives are rich in lipids. Question: How do you test for carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids? 1. Test: Under the Benedict test , click Test . Is the Benedict test positive for sample A? yes Recall that orange is a positive test for monosaccharides (and some disaccharides). 2. Test: The Lugol test uses iodine to test for starch, a polysaccharide (complex carbohydrate). Iodine turns dark purple in the presence of starch. Under Lugol test , click Test . Does sample A contain starch? no 3. Test: The Biuret test uses a solution of potassium hydroxide (KOH) and copper sulfate (CuSO 4 ) to test for protein. The Biuret solution turns purple when proteins are present. Under Biuret test , click Test . Does sample A contain proteins? no 4. Test: The Sudan Red test uses a fat-soluble dye, Sudan Red, to indicate the presence of lipids. When lipids are present, the dye will be absorbed into the lipids, and will appear as concentrated spots of color in thetest tube. (No spots indicates that lipids are not present.) Under Sudan Red test , click Test . Does sample A contain lipids? no 5. Summarize: What nutrients does sample A contain? monosaccharides Reproduction for educational use only. Public sharing or posting prohibited. © 2020 ExploreLearning™ All rights reserved
6. Analyze: What kind of food is sample A most likely to be? ( Highlight the food type) Apple juice Baked beans Oatmeal Scrambled eggs Activity B: Nutrients andfood types Get the Gizmo ready: ● Click Reset . Question: What nutrients does each food sample contain? 1. Collect data: Use the four available tests to find the nutritional content of samples E, G, and M. (Sample A has been done for you as an example.) Record results on the table below. Carbohydrate Tests Protein Test Lipids Test Test results – are these nutrients present? Food sample Benedict test Lugol test Biuret test Sudan Red test Mono- saccharides Starches Proteins Lipids A + – – – Yes No No No E - - + + no no yes yes G - - - - no no no no M - + - - no yes no no 2. Analyze: Look at the results for samples A, E, G, and M. A. Is sample E most likely to be steak, bread, or butter? Justify your answer. Steak, as it contains both proteins and fats. B. Is sample G most likely to be table sugar, pasta, or olive oil? Justify your answer. Since we did not test for disaccharides and they do not display the test findings forproteins, carbs, or lipids, Sample G would be table sugar. C. Is sample M most likely to be chicken, rice, a mango, or butter? Justify your answer. Because rice is a starch and food sample M passed the Lugol test, rice is a goodchoice. Reproduction for educational use only. Public sharing or posting prohibited. © 2020 ExploreLearning™ All rights reserved
3. Draw conclusions: Why is it important to understand the nutritional content of food? Every nutrient has a function and is crucial to our body. We must understand nutrition in orderto properly apply each one to our bodies. 4. Practice: Determine the nutritional content of the remaining food samples. Carbohydrate Tests Protein Test Lipids Test Test results – are these nutrients present? Food sample Benedict test Lugol test Biuret test Sudan Red test Mono- saccharides Starches Proteins Lipids B - - + + no no yes yes C - + - + no yes no no D - - + + no no yes yes F - - - - no no no no H - - + + no no yes yes I + - - - yes no no no J - - + + no no yes yes K + - - - yes no no no L - - + + no no yes yes N - + - - no yes no no O - - - - no no no no P + - - - yes no no no Q - - + + no no yes yes R - + - - no yes no no S - - + + no no yes yes 5. Think and discuss: If possible, discuss these food samples with your classmates and teacher. Try to come up with a type of food that corresponds to each sample. 6. Extend your thinking: In general, a balanced diet contains relatively even amounts of carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids. Too much sugar is unhealthy. Fruits and vegetables are important sources of vitaminsand minerals. Do you consider your diet balanced and healthy? Why or why not? Reproduction for educational use only. Public sharing or posting prohibited. © 2020 ExploreLearning™ All rights reserved
As a result of the relatively equal proportions of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats in my dietplus the fact that I don't consume a lot of sweets, I believe my diet to be balanced. Reproduction for educational use only. Public sharing or posting prohibited. © 2020 ExploreLearning™ All rights reserved
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Identifying Nutrients Gizmo Answer Key