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Name: Jacey Townsend Date: 11-18-2022 Student Exploration: Ideal Gas Law Directions: Follow the instructions to go through the simulation. Respond to the questions andprompts in the orange boxes. Vocabulary : atmosphere, Avogadro’s law, Boyle’s law, Charles’s law, dependent variable, directly proportional, Gay-Lussac’s law, ideal gas, ideal gas constant, ideal gas law, independent variable, inversely proportional,Kelvin temperature scale, kilopascal, mole, pressure, proportionality, STP, volume Prior Knowledge Questions (Do these BEFORE using the Gizmo.) 1. Why is it often necessary to add air to your car tires during the winter? As a result of the pressure dropping in cold weather, the tire may deflate. 2. Why do you think it might be a bad idea to throw an aerosol can into a fire? The rising temperature creates the possibility of an explosion. Gizmo Warm-up The Ideal Gas Law Gizmo shows molecules moving within a chamber fitted with a movable piston. As the piston moves up and down, the volume of the chamber changes. Since gases expand to fill their container, any changes in the volume ofthe chamber changes the volume of the gas within. 1. Next to Dependent variable , check that Volume is selected. Using the green slider, change the pressure . Note what happens to the temperature, volume, and amount of gas. What changes? The volume What stays the same? temp and moles 2. Using the purple slider on the tank of gas, adjust the number of moles , or amount of gas. What changes? The volume What stays the same? Temperature and pressure 3. Now make Pressure the dependent variable. Use the red slider to change the temperature. What changes? The volume What stays the same? Temperature and pressure Reproduction for educational use only. Public sharing or posting prohibited. © 2020 ExploreLearning™ All rights reserved
Activity A: Volumerelationships Get the Gizmo ready: ● Select Volume as the dependent variable. ● Set Pressure ( P ) to 1.0 atm, Moles ( n ) to 1.0, and Temperature ( T ) to 100 K. Introduction: The dependent variable changes in response to a change in the independent variable in an experiment. Independent variables are controlled by the experimenter and are manipulated to see what effectthey might have on the dependent variable. Question: What are some factors that affect the volume of a gas? 1. Investigate: In this Gizmo, all temperatures are measured using the Kelvin temperature scale . This scale is based directly on molecular motion, with 0 K equal to –273 °C. A. What do you think will happen to the speed of the molecules if a gas is heated? They'll move more quickly. B. What do you think will happen to the space between molecules, and thus the volume of a gas, as it is heated? The space between the molecules will increase and so will the volume 2. Analyze: Select the TABLE tab to see your data. With temperature set at 100 K, press Record . Increase the temperature in 50 K increments, pressing Record each time. A. What trend do you see? The loudness goes up B. If the temperature of a gas is doubled, its volume will double C. If the temperature of a gas is halved, its volume will cut in half If two variables are directly proportional , an increase in the independent variable will cause the dependent variable to increase at the same rate. If the variables are inversely proportional , an increase in the independent variable will cause the dependent variable to decrease at the samerate. D. Select the GRAPH tab. Choose Temperature for the x -axis. A line with a positive slope shows that two variables are directly proportional, while a curve with a negative slope reveals that two variablesare inversely proportional. Based on the graph, temperature and volume are inversely proportional. Reproduction for educational use only. Public sharing or posting prohibited. © 2020 ExploreLearning™ All rights reserved
3. Summarize: Charles’s law states the relationship between the temperature and volume of a gas. Based on your observations so far, state Charles’s law in your own words. The relationship between volume and temperature means that when one changes, the other does too. 4. Explore: Select the TABLE tab. Note the container’s lid, which exerts pressure on the gas. A. What do you think will happen to the volume of the gas as pressure is increased? The volume will drop B. Gradually increase the pressure. Record data each time. How does volume change when pressure increases? diminishes as pressure rises C. What happens to the volume when the pressure doubles? It is cut in half D. Is this relationship directly or inversely proportional? Inversely 5. Summarize: The relationship between pressure and volume is summarized by Boyle’s law . Based on your observations, state Boyle’s law in your own words. Because of their inverse relationship, as one rises, the other drops, and vice versa. 6. Predict: Check that Volume is still the dependent variable. Set Moles to 0.2 mol. A. Predict: If more gas is added to the chamber, the volume will decrease B. Gradually introduce more gas into the chamber. Was your prediction correct? Yes 7. Investigate: On the DESCRIPTION tab, change the gas to helium and then to nitrogen. Experiment with the Gizmo, noting if the volume changes as the type of gas is changed. A. Does the identity of the gas affect the volume of the gas? No B. Why do you think this is so? Since the identity is constant, the volume doesn't vary. 8. Graph: Create a graph that shows the relationship between volume and number of moles. A. Is the relationship between the amount of gas (indicated by moles) and the volume directly or indirectly proportional? directly proportional B. Therefore, if the amount of gas is tripled, the volume will triple 9. Summarize: Avogadro’s law states the relationship between volume and the amount of gas. State Avogadro’s law in your own words. Reproduction for educational use only. Public sharing or posting prohibited. © 2020 ExploreLearning™ All rights reserved
The amount of gas also rises as volume does. Activity B: Pressurerelationships Get the Gizmo ready: ● Select Pressure as the dependent variable. ● Set Volume ( V ) to 42.0 L, Moles ( n ) to 1.0, and Temperature ( T ) to 100 K. Introduction: Pressure refers to the force that the gas molecules exert on the walls of their container. Pressure always refers to force acting over a specific area: Pressure = Force/Area. Question: What determines how much pressure a gas will exert? 1. Explore: Set the gas to Hydrogen . Observe how often the gas molecules collide with the bottom of the chamber. Now increase the temperature and observe the number of collisions. A. What happens to the speed of molecules as temperature increases? Increases B. What happens to the number of collisions as temperature increases? Increases C. What happens to the pressure as temperature increases? Increases D. Based on your observations, why do you think the pressure increases? The pressure rises as the temperature raises. 2. Graph: Create a graph that shows the relationship between temperature and pressure. A. Is the relationship between the temperature and pressure directly or indirectly proportional? Directly proportional B. Therefore, if the temperature is quadrupled, the pressure will quadruple 3. Summarize: The relationship between pressure and temperature (at constant volume) is given by Gay-Lussac’s law . State Gay-Lussac’s law in your own words. Temperature will change in tandem with changes in pressure. 4. Investigate: Select the BAR CHART tab. Make the chamber as large as possible. A. Gradually decrease the volume. What happens to the pressure of the gas? Increases B. What happens to the pressure when the volume is cut in half? Increases half. C. What happens to the pressure when the volume is quadrupled? Decreases four times D. How does volume affect pressure? Reproduction for educational use only. Public sharing or posting prohibited. © 2020 ExploreLearning™ All rights reserved
Inversely 5. Graph: Create a graph showing the relationship between volume and pressure. A. Is the slope of the line positive or negative? Negative B. Based on the direction of the slope, is the relationship between pressure and volume directly or inversely proportional? Inversely C. Which gas law summarizes this relationship? Boyle’s law D. Why do you think making the chamber smaller leads to an increase in gas pressure? Because there is less room for gas to travel, pressure and temperature will rise. 6. Observe: Select the BAR CHART tab. Change the number of moles and observe. A. What happens to the pressure as the amount of gas increases? Increases B. What is the relationship between the number of moles and pressure? The pressure rises as the number of moles rises 7. Infer: One mole of any substance contains Avogadro’s number (6.022 10 23 ) of particles. × A. Will doubling the number of moles double the number of particles? Yes B. Why does doubling the number of moles double the pressure? They are proportional 8. Compare: Change the gas to nitrogen, which is heavier than hydrogen, and observe. A. Do its molecules move faster or slower than those of hydrogen? Slower B. Since heavier molecules exert more force each time they collide, is it likely that fewer collisions could produce the same force? Yes C. Observe the pressure as you change the type of gas. What can you conclude about the effect of the type of gas on pressure? Pressure remains the same 9. Summarize: What are three ways to increase the pressure of a gas? Reduce volume, raise temperature, and increase gas amount Reproduction for educational use only. Public sharing or posting prohibited. © 2020 ExploreLearning™ All rights reserved
Activity C: The ideal gas law Get the Gizmo ready: ● Select Volume as the dependent variable. Introduction: So far you have explored the individual relationships between P , V , T , and n . In this activity, you will combine all of these relationships into a single law, enabling you to see how the behavior of a gas isaffected when several different variables are changed at one time. Question: How do volume, pressure, temperature, and amount of gas interact? 1. Analyze: Avogadro’s law states that the volume of a gas is directly proportional to the number of moles ( n ). If two variables are directly proportional the symbol “ ∝ ” is used, which means “directly proportional to.” Therefore, the relationship between volume and moles would be written as V ∝ n . This type of relationship is known as a proportionality . A. Volume is also directly proportional to temperature ( T ). Express this relationship as a proportionality, in the following form: V ∝ T B. Since volume is inversely proportional to pressure, volume is directly proportional to 1/ P . Express this relationship as a proportionality: v-T1/P 2. Synthesize: If you know that a ∝ b and a ∝ c , then you can also say that a ∝ bc , or the product of b and c . Take the above three proportionalities (including V ∝ n ) and combine them into a single proportionality in the form: V ∝ ? Show your work below. v-T1/P 3. Calculate: A proportionality is not the same thing as an equation, however. To convert a proportionality into an equation it is necessary to multiply by a mathematical constant. For example, a ∝ b means that a = kb , where k is a constant. When referring to gases, this constant is referred to as R, the ideal gas constant . A. In the space below, rewrite the proportionality you created in question 2 so that the proportionality symbol ( ∝ ) is changed to “=” and the right side is multiplied by R . B. Rearrange your equation to solve for the ideal gas constant: R = C. You should have gotten an equation equivalent to ( R = PV / nT ). Pick any set of conditions in the Gizmo you would like, and then calculate R . Show your work below. P = 1.8 V = 13.2 n = 0.7 T = 410 R = 2080 Reproduction for educational use only. Public sharing or posting prohibited. © 2020 ExploreLearning™ All rights reserved
D. Recalculate R using a completely different set of Gizmo conditions R = 2080 4. Compare: The accepted value for R is 0.08206 L·atm/K·mol or 8.314 L·kPa/K·mol, depending on the unit of pressure used. (Your answer may differ slightly due to rounding.) How close was your calculation? No 5. Synthesize: The ideal gas law is an equation relating P , V , R , n , and T . Rewrite the formula you found in question 3A so that P and V are on one side and R , n , and T are on the other. Show your work. PV=nRT 6. Discover: It is important to have a baseline set of conditions to serve as a reference point. Standard temperature and pressure ( STP ) is defined as 1 atmosphere (atm) or 101.325 kilopascals (kPa) of pressure at 273 K (0 ºC). STP reflects normal atmospheric conditions at sea level. A. Use the Gizmo to find the volume of 1 mole of gas at STP. (You will need to manually enter the temperature.) What value did you find? 22.4 B. Choose a different gas. Does the volume change? No 7. Calculate: Use the ideal gas law ( PV = nRT ) to solve the following. Show work for each problem. Then use the Gizmo to check your answer. A. What is the volume of 0.5 moles of gas at STP? V = 1.13 B. How much pressure would 0.8 moles of a gas at 370 K exert if it occupied 17.3 L of space? P = 104,95 C. How much H 2 gas is necessary to exert a pressure of 1.4 atm at 430 K if occupying a volume of 15.1 L? Reproduction for educational use only. Public sharing or posting prohibited. © 2020 ExploreLearning™ All rights reserved
n = 0.6 Reproduction for educational use only. Public sharing or posting prohibited. © 2020 ExploreLearning™ All rights reserved
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Ideal Gas Law Gizmo Answer Key