Tell us what’s wrong with it:
Thanks, got it!
We will moderate it soon!
Name: Ryan Ingram Date: 12-10-2022 Student Exploration: Colligative Properties Directions: Follow the instructions to go through the simulation. Respond to the questions andprompts in the orange boxes. Vocabulary: boiling point, colligative property, concentration, dissociate, freezing point, manometer, osmosis, osmotic pressure, solute, solution, solvent, vapor pressure Prior Knowledge Questions (Do these BEFORE using the Gizmo.) 1. When the forecast calls for freezing rain, salt is often spread on the roads. Why is this done? It assists in melting ice on driveways and roads. 2. Antifreeze is added to car radiators to prevent the water in the radiators from both freezing and boiling. How do you think antifreeze affects the temperatures at which water freezes (the freezing point ) and boils (the boiling point )? Antifreeze lowers the freezing point of water, preventing overnight freezing of the water in the engine. Gizmo Warm-up Adding salt or other substances to water can affect the temperatureat which it freezes or boils. These effects and others, known as colligative properties , are explored in the Colligative Properties Gizmo. Check that No solute is selected and the Air temp. is 25 °C. 1. Describe the motion of the water molecules in the beaker. They differ in speed, bounce off of one another, and moveslower than the air. 2. Change the Air temp. to –10 °C. What do you see as the water freezes? The water molecules become stationary but they are still shaking. 3. Now change the Air temp. to 110 °C. What do you see as the water boils? Water is vaporizing, and both gas and liquid molecules are moving quickly. Reproduction for educational use only. Public sharing or posting prohibited. © 2020 ExploreLearning™ All rights reserved
Activity A: Vapor pressureand boiling point Get the Gizmo ready: ● Check that No solute is selected. ● Set the Air temp. to 25 °C. Introduction: At the surface of a body of water, water molecules are constantly moving from the liquid phase to the gas phase, and vice versa. The molecules that evaporate collide against the walls of the beaker, creating vapor pressure . Vapor pressure can be measured by a manometer , a liquid-filled tube that is connected to the top of the beaker. Increasing the vapor pressure pushes the water in the tube, causing the water in the right arm of thetube to rise to a higher level than the water in the left arm of the tube. Question: How does salt affect the properties of water? 1. Observe: Gradually increase the Air temp. to 95 °C. As you do this, observe the water in the manometer. What do you notice, and what does this indicate about the vapor pressure? The manometer's water level is rising, which indicates that the pressure from water transferring to gasis rising. 2. Record: Click the Record button below the table to see the vapor pressure in kilopascals (kPa). Use the Gizmo to find the vapor pressure at 5 °C, 50 °C, and 95 °C. 5°C: .87 50 °C: 12.34 95 °C: 84.51 3. Analyze: How does the temperature of the liquid relate to the vapor pressure? The vapor pressure increases with increasing liquid temperature. 4. Measure: To measure the boiling point, increase the Air temp. to 110 °C. When you see bubbles, click Record . The water temperature at this time is equal to the boiling point. A. What is the boiling point of pure water? 100 C B. What is the current vapor pressure? 101.32 C. Atmospheric pressure at sea level is equal to 101.32 kilopascals (kPa). Why do you think water boils when the vapor pressure is equal to atmospheric pressure? It would be possible for the vapor to escape from the water and enter the atmosphere. Reproduction for educational use only. Public sharing or posting prohibited. © 2020 ExploreLearning™ All rights reserved
5. Compare: Click Clear . Set the Air temp. to 25 °C, and click Record . Compare the vapor pressure with No solute to the vapor pressure with Sodium chloride selected. A. How does the presence of sodium chloride affect the vapor pressure of water? Makes it go down B. Based on this effect, how do you expect the presence of sodium chloride to affect the boiling point of water? Make the boiling point of the water go down 6. Predict: How do you expect the addition of sodium chloride (table salt) to affect the freezing point of water? The freezing point will decrease. 7. Gather data: Use the Gizmo to find the vapor pressure at 25 °C, the boiling point, and the freezing point of pure water and the sodium chloride solution . To find the freezing point, lower the Air temp. to –10 °C, wait for the molecules to start freezing, and click Record . The water temperature at this time is equal to the freezing point. Complete the table below. Solution Vapor pressure at 25 °C Boiling point Freezing point Pure water 3.17 100C 0C Water + sodium chloride 3.06 101C -4C 8. Analyze: How does adding sodium chloride affect the boiling and freezing points of water? Increases the freezing and boiling points 9. Apply: Based on what you have learned, why do people spread salt on the roads in winter? So that the snow does not melt quickly and subsequently freeze onto the roads 10. Explore: Select the STUDY CONCENTRATION tab. On your own, explore how the concentration of sodium chloride affects the colligative properties of water. Describe your results: The freezing point of water decreases as salt concentration increases. Reproduction for educational use only. Public sharing or posting prohibited. © 2020 ExploreLearning™ All rights reserved
Activity B: Dissociation Get the Gizmo ready: ● Select the STUDY SOLUTE tab.● Set the Air temp to 25 °C. Introduction: When an ionic compound such as sodium chloride (NaCl) dissolves in water, it dissociates , or breaks up, into individual Na + and Cl – ions. Different ionic compounds may dissociate into different numbers of ions, depending on their composition. Covalent compounds such as sucrose do not dissociate. Question: How does the dissociation of a solute affect the colligative properties of a solution? 1. Observe: When the Show molecular view is on, you can see how many particles of solute are dissolved in the solvent (water). Solute particles are colored yellow, dark blue, green, and red. In the molecular view, you see the result of dissolving one molecule of solute into the solvent. List the number of each kind of particle below. No solute: 0 Sucrose: 2 Sodium chloride: 4 Calcium chloride: 6 Potassium chloride: 4 2. Predict: Colligative properties are determined solely by the number of solute particles in the solution. Based on this fact, which solute do you expect to have the greatest effect on the properties of water? The leasteffect? Given that it contains the most particles, calcium chloride should have the most impact, whereassucrose should have the least impact. 3. Gather data: For each solute, measure the vapor pressure at a temperature of 25 °C. Then measure the boiling point and freezing point of each solution. Solute Number of particles Vapor pressure at 25 °C Boiling point Freezing point None 0 1.77 100 0 Sucrose 2 1.02 101 -3 Sodium chloride 4 1.11 101 -4 Calcium chloride 6 0.94 102 -6 Potassium chloride 8 0.99 101 -5 Reproduction for educational use only. Public sharing or posting prohibited. © 2020 ExploreLearning™ All rights reserved
4. Analyze: How did the number of solute particles affect the colligative properties of water? The boiling point increased and the freezing point decreased as the number of particles increased. 5. Find a pattern: The chemical formulas of the three ionic solutes are NaCl (sodium chloride), CaCl 2 (calcium chloride), and KCl (potassium chloride). A. How does the chemical formula relate to the number of particles that result from the dissociation of a molecule? The compound's particle count multiplied by the number of particles in solution the variety ofthe elements. B. Aluminum chloride has the formula AlCl 3 . How many particles would a molecule of aluminum chloride dissociate into? 8 C. Based on the data you have collected so far, predict the boiling point and freezing point of a 1.0-mol/kg solution of aluminum chloride: 16 6. Check: Select the STUDY CONCENTRATION tab. You can model a 1.0-mol/kg solution of aluminum chloride by using a 2.0-mol/kg solution of sodium chloride. Use the Gizmo to find the boiling point andfreezing point of a 1.0-mol/kg aluminum chloride solution. Solute Number of particles Vapor pressure at 25 °C Boiling point Freezing point Aluminum chloride 8 1.03 102 -7 7. Think and discuss: Colligative properties depend only on the number of particles, not the identity of the solute. What evidence could you use to demonstrate this point? The same events do not occur with the same identities when the same number of particles have thesame colligative qualities. Reproduction for educational use only. Public sharing or posting prohibited. © 2020 ExploreLearning™ All rights reserved
Extension: Osmotic pressure Get the Gizmo ready: ● Select the STUDY SOLUTE tab.● Set the Air temp. to 25 °C. Introduction: Osmosis is the flow of water across a semipermeable membrane from a region of lower solute concentration to a region of higher solute concentration. The membrane allows water, but not solute, to gothrough. Like boiling and freezing, osmosis is a colligative property. Question: How do different solutes affect osmosis? 1. Measure: Adding pressure to a solution can prevent water from entering the solution via osmosis. The osmotic pressure of the solution is equal to the pressure required to stop osmosis. A higher osmotic pressure indicates a more highly saturated solution. Select Sucrose and click Record . What is the osmotic pressure of sucrose? 24.09 2. Predict: Based on the osmotic pressure of sucrose, predict what the osmotic pressures will be for the other solutes: Sodium chloride: 28.02 Calcium chloride: 32.02 Potassium chloride: 28.02 3. Gather data: Use the Gizmo to measure the osmotic pressure of each solute. (Note: The Air temp. must be set to 25 °C to collect data on osmotic pressure.) Write the results below. Sodium chloride: 48.18 Calcium chloride: 72.08 Potassium chloride: 48.18 4. Analyze: How close were your predictions? higher than I anticipated 5. Apply: Eating a diet rich in sodium can increase the risk of high blood pressure. Why would excessive amounts of sodium in the blood lead to higher blood pressure? Since there would be an excess of salt in your system, more water would want to cross the membraneinto the bloodstream which could cause greater pressure. 6. Summarize: What do all the colligative properties you have studied have in common? They all have an impact on pressure, freezing point, and boiling point. The quantity of particlesdissolved in the solution has an impact on them. Reproduction for educational use only. Public sharing or posting prohibited. © 2020 ExploreLearning™ All rights reserved
Please login or register to post comments
Colligative Properties Gizmo Answer Key