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Neurolocalization Assessing Deficits

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IEUROLOCALIZATION

ASSESSING DEFICITS

I - OLFACTORY

Difficult to assess

PUPILLARY LIGHT REFLEX

MENACE RESPONSE

can try hiding food

Must assess in dark/ambient

Learned response by 12

in hand or under

weeks; not reflex

light first

Assess for anisicoria

Hand is moved quickly

II - OPTIC

Miotic?

towards eye; stopped before

Example: If the right eye is mydriadic, and you shine a light in the right

Lesions along visual

Constricted?

eye and the left eye constricts, then the lesion location is to the

hitting

occulomotor nerve on the right.

pathway can affect

Mydriatic?

Example: If the right eye is mydriadic, and you shine a light in the right

will assess CN II & VII

eye and neither eye constricts but when you shine it on the left and both

Several ways to

Horner syndrome

eyes constrict, then the lesion location is to the pre-chiasmal on the right.

assess

Lack of sympathetic

innervation to head

UMN

LMN

and neck

Miosis

Detrusor Muscle

Increased

Decreased

Ptosis

Tone

Enopthalmos

3rd eyelid elevation

Urethral Sphincter

Increased

Decreased

Vasodilation

Tone

Bladder Expression

Difficult - urinary

Easy - urinary

REFLEXES

retention

incontinence

An animal will NEVER

have a normal exam

C1-C5

T3-L3

other than reflexes which

Respiratory depression

Schiff Sherrington

lead to neurolocalization

C6-T2

Spinal Shock

Horner syndrome

Cuteous Trunci Cutoff

Nerve root signature

L4-S3

WITHDRAWAL REFLEX

Absent Cutaneous Trunci

Abnormal anal tone

Thoracic Limb

Flaccid tail

Sensory of toes = caudal intumescence

Motor for flexion is cranial intumescence

Lesion anywhere in C6-T2 could influence

VII - FACIAL

withdrawal

Lack of menace or palpebral

Pelvic Limb

facial drooping

Lack of sensation to inner

Deep pain medial digit = femoral nerve

Sensory to rest = sciatic

pinnae

Motor for flexion is entire intumescence

Neurogenic keratoconjunctivitis

Lesion anywhere in L4-S1 could influence

sicca

withdrawal

PAW PLACEMENT

VIII - VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR

IX, X, XI - GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL,

Maintains posture and balance VAGUS, SPINAL ACCESSORY

Minimal strength required

Detects acceleration and

Pure cerebellar lesions do

All originate from caudal

deceleration

not affect

medulla

Forebrain lesions can cause

Coordinates eye movement

MOTOR of swallowing: IX, X, XI

Clinical signs of impingement

SENSORY of swallowing: X

delayed to absent paw

can include

placement

Forebrain lesions can

Abnormal posture

XII - HYPOGLOSSAL

Vestibular ataxia

frequently have normal-

Strabismus

Inspect tongue for atrophy,

mildly delayed hopping but

asymmetry or deviation

Nystagmus

absent paw placement

Heating loss is hard to assess

Animals lick nose after gag

Cerebellar can have normal

reflex is tested

unless deaf in both ears

paw placement but absent

watching animal drink water

hoppping

can also help assess

Brainstem and spinal cord

have delayed to absent of

both

of 1