Merge and Split Operations: The Art of Mastering Binary SearchTrees A strong data structure that facilitates effective searching, insertion, and deletion operations is the binary search tree. In addition to these fundamentaloperations, binary search trees also support a number of less well-known butnonetheless crucial advanced operations that are useful for professionals in thesubject. We'll cover two of these actions in this article: merge and split. These processes, which can be helpful in a variety of circumstances, allow for thecombining and separation of binary search trees, respectively. Combined Operations Two binary search trees are combined into one tree during the merge operation. The two trees must satisfy the following requirement in order tosuccessfully merge them: every key in the first tree must be smaller than everykey in the second tree. Think about the following three trees, for instance: ● A: A tree where all elements are less than the elements in the tree above ● B: A tree with a 9 that is indistinguishable from the tree above since it isbetween 8 and 10. ● C: A tree with both 2 and 12, which are smaller than everything in thetree above and larger than it. Which tree can be merged with the given one? Only tree A can properly merge with the tree above it out of these three trees. There are two methods for doing the merging operation:
● MergeWithRoot: In this method, a second node serves as the new tree'sroot. The first tree becomes the root node's left child, while the secondtree becomes the root node's right child. The root node is then returnedafter the tree's height has been modified as necessary. It is relatively easyto implement and requires O(1) time. ● MergeWithoutRoot: If an additional node is not available, the originaltree's biggest element is located and eliminated. The MergeWithRootoperation is subsequently carried out, and this element becomes the newtree's root. Using a split strategy A binary search tree is split into two separate trees using the split technique. This procedure is helpful when you need to divide a large tree intotwo smaller ones, such as to balance the tree or carry out other tasks moreeffectively. A key is selected to perform a split operation, and the tree is split into twohalves based on the values of the keys: ● All nodes with keys that are less than or equal to the key are found in theleft subtree. ● All of the nodes with keys greater than the key are found in the rightsubtree.Finding the node with the chosen key, removing it from the remainder of the tree, and then dividing the remaining tree into two subtrees according to thevalues of the keys are the steps involved in implementing the split operation. To sum up, the merge and split procedures are sophisticated methods for interacting with binary search trees that can be extremely helpful in somecircumstances. You can advance your knowledge of binary search trees and turninto a true expert in the field by comprehending these operations and knowinghow to use them.