Chapter 2: First Encounters, First Conquests, 1492-1607 Chapter Objective: Demonstrate an understanding of the initial encounters of Europeans, Africans, and American Indians. Introduction 1. Who sent Columbus on his voyage? Where and when did he go? How did this voyage affect the Europeans and the American Indians? ● King Ferdinand II and Queen Isabella I sent Columbus on his voyage.Christopher Columbus sailed the Atlantic Ocean and reached NorthAmerica in 1492. This voyage led to the discovery of the Americas forEuropeans and led to Europeans conquering American Indian lands andcolonization of North America. ● King Ferdinand II and Queen Isabella Igave Christopher Columbus resources 2.1 Columbus, The Columbian Exchange, and Early Conquests Learning Objective: Explain the reasons behind the voyages of Columbus and early Spanish encounters with the peoples of the Caribbean, Mexico, and South America. 2. How did Columbus describe the natives? Why did he call the natives “Indians”? ● Columbus described the natives as timid and full of fear. He called thenatives Indians as he thought he had landed in India. ● no weapons ● easy to conquer ● good servants 3. Isabella and Ferdinand supplied Columbus with ships and men for a second voyage. What did he find different when he arrived back onHispaniola? ● When he arrived back on Hispaniola he found out that his men had beenkilled by the Native Americans and his settlement had been destroyed. ● lied about gold ● promised slaves ● natives killed the Spanish ● punished natives 4. What was different about Spanish and Portuguese exploration? How did they avoid conflict with one another? [use: Treaty of Tordesillas ] ● The Spanish and Portuguese differed as the Spanish explored and colonizedland for their empire while the Portuguese used trading ports. They avoidedconflict with one another as they divided the world amongst each other. ● Spain= explore/conquer ● Portugal=trade in Africa/Asia ● Treaty of Tordesillas to divide globe 5. Who is Amerigo Vespucci? What discoveries did he make? [use: America ] ● Amerigo Vespucci was an Italian merchant that explored Spain. Hediscovered that the continent Christopher Columbus arrived on was notAsia but a new Continent. America was therefore named after him. ● Italian merchant, made a new map withthe Americas 6. How did Nicolas de Ovando defy the orders of Ferdinand and Isabella? What happened to the Tainos and the other natives of America? ● Nicolas de Ovando defied the orders of Ferdinand and Isabella by treatingthe natives cruelly. The Tainos and other natives of America were killedand their land was stolen. ● orders: permanent settlements ● more gold ● don't enslave natives ● knifed natives to death,
7. How was travel before and after 1492 different? What was the role of the Atlantic Ocean? [use: Silk Road ] ● Travel before 1492 mostly relied on land routes for trade. The AtlanticOcean provided routes for exchange between the two continents. ● Land-based (Silk Road/Africa) toocean-based trade 8. What was the Columbian Exchange ? How did it affect the eating habits of people around the world? ● The Columbian Exchange was a set of routes of trade between Europe andAmerica. The Columbian Exchange brought fruits, vegetables, and animalsfrom the new world to the old world and would change the staple foods ofpeople across the world. ● Trans-Atlantic trade of plants, animals,diseases, cultures ● changes eating habits ● kills natives, no immunity to smallpox 9. Where and how did Hernan Cortes and Francisco Pizarro conquer for Spain? What purpose did each conquest serve? [use: New Spain ] ● Hernan Cortes conquered the Aztec Empire for Spain while FranciscoPizarro conquered the Incan Empire for Spain. Both of these conquestsserved the purpose of expanding Spain’s wealth, power, and prestige. ● Cortes defeats Aztecs in Mexico ● established “New Spain” as the center ofthe Spanish Empire ● Pizarro defeated Incas in Peru ● supplied Spain with gold and silver 10. Who is Bartolome de Las Casas? What were his beliefs regarding Spain’s conquests? [use: encomienda , conquistadores ] ● Bartolome de Las Casas was a Spanish priest who was rewarded anencomienda and was horrified about the treatment of the natives in NorthAmerica. He believed that Spain’s and the conquistador's conquests werecruel to the people. ● Spanish Priest helped conquer Cuba forSpain ● Gained encomienda (ranch) w/ Indianslaves ● Asked king and queen to intervene andprotect Indians ● resulted in some reforms 2.2 A Divided Europe: The Impact of the Protestant Reformation Learning Objective: Explain how the Protestant Reformation and the development of the nation-state changed Europe and European ideas about how best to settle and govern America. 11. How did Martin Luther’s Ninety-Five Theses criticize the Roman Catholic Church? How did this lead to the Protestant Reformation ? ● Martin Luther’s Ninety-Five Theses criticized Roman Catholic Church'scorruption, such as readily accepting bribes. His 95 Theses led to manywanting reforms and starting the Protestant Reformation. ● posted 95 theses of complaints ● led to split in Christianity 12. What was the significance of Johannes Gutenberg’s printing press? ● Johannes Gutenberg’s printing press was significant as it drasticallyincreased the spread of literacy, religion, and knowledge across Europe. ● Spread of printing and Literacy throughEurope 2.3 Exploration and Encounter in North America: The Spanish Learning Objective: Analyze early Spanish exploration of America north of Mexico.
13. What are the Seven Cities of Cibola ? Describe Francisco Vazquez de Coronado’s interactions with the American Indians as he searched forthem? ● The Seven Cities of Cibola were seven cities founded by Christan prieststhat had immense wealth. Francisco Vazquez de Coronado’s interactionswith natives came from his battles fought against them for submission tothe Spanish crown. ● Explored Southwest to look for lelegendary of gold ● Attacked villages ● Natives don’t fight back ● tell him wealth is over horizon 14. Why did Spain set up permanent settlements in North America? ● Spain had set up permanent settlements in North America as they couldgain massive amounts of wealth by using slave labor to produce crops andgoods and gain the prestige of owning an empire. ● France, England, Holland beginexploring 15. Which two countries attempted to settle in Florida? What were their goals? ● Spain and France attempted to settle in Florida. Spain and France bothwanted more land for plantations to gain themselves more wealth. ● French Fort Caroline ● secure lands for France ● safe haven for French Protestants ● Spanish St Augustine ● traded with natives and converted themto Catholicism 16. How did Don Juan de Onate’s relationship with the Acoma tribe change over time in New Mexico? Why is he called the Last Conquistador? ● Juan de Onate’s relationship with the Acoma tribe changed when he heardthe news that 13 Spaniards had died to the Acoma tribe. He would order themassacre of the Acoma tribe and be called the Last Conquistador as he wasbanished from New Spain due to excessive violence. ● Government of New Mexico, no harshpolicies ● Acoma tribe refused to pay taxes toSpain ● Acoma tribe killed 13 Spainards ● Onate punished with foot amputations ● only 200/2000 survived 2.4 Exploration and Encounter in North America: The French Learning Objective: Analyze early French exploration and claims in North America. 17. Who were the French explorers in North America? Where did they explore? What were they seeking? ● Giovanni da Verrazano, Jacques Cartier, and Samuel de Champlain wereFrench explorers in North America. French explorers explored the greatlakes region of North America while seeking a Northwestern passage toNorth America. ● Traded furs and animal pelts ● claim land for France 2.5 Exploration and Encounter in North America: The English Learning Objective: Explain English explorers, privateers, and reasons for settlement.
18. What were King Henry VIII’s connections to the Catholic Church? How were they broken? ● King Henry VIII was a devout Catholic who believed in the teachings ofthe Pope and the Catholic Church. After the Pope denied King Henry VIII adivorce, he split from the Catholic Church to create the Church of England,which would allow him to divorce his wife. ● Divorced not allowed by Pope ● used protestant reformation to split fromthe Catholic church and create the churchof England 19. What were the differences between the Anglicans and the Puritans ? ● The difference between Anglicans and Puritans is that the Puritans believedthat they needed to purify England from Catholic influences whileAnglicans wanted to keep Catholic practices. ● Puritans want to purify England ● Anglicans don’t want the pope but wantto keep practices 20. Why did Queen Elizabeth embrace Protestantism? What was the Act of Uniformity in 1559? ● Queen Elizabeth embraced Protestantism to legitimize her rule and keepherself popular amongst the people of England. The Act of Uniformityforced all people in England to adhere to Protestantism and its practices. ● Act of Uniformity: forced all in Englandto switch to Protestantism 21. Describe the growing rivalry between England and Spain. ● England and Spain had a growing rivalry because of colonial boundariesand religious reasons. Spain and England began having overlappingcolonial claims in North America. This was combined with the fact thatEngland was the strongest Protestant country in Europe while Spain wasthe strongest Catholic country in Europe. This allowed for both of theirnavies to fight against each other in a set of wars. ● Elizabeth hates King Phillip of Spain ● Religious Rivalry ● Try to overthrow and invade 22. What is a privateer? What mission did Queen Elizabeth give to privateer Francis Drake? What other accomplishments did he achievefor England? ● A privateer was a pirate that was employed by a government to raid enemynavies. Queen Elizabeth gave privateer Francis Drake the mission ofraiding Spanish shipping and bringing back the riches for England. One ofFrancis Drake’s big achievements was that he burned down the fort of St.Augustine in Spanish-held Florida. ● Privateer=hired pirate ● attack Spanish ships ● England keeps 20% 23. What goal did Walter Raleigh have in North America? Describe his two settlement attempts. Why is Roanoke called “the lost colony”? ● Walter Raleigh had the goal of creating a permanent settlement in NorthAmerica that could serve as a base for resupplying ships for voyages backto England. Walter Raliegh tried settling at Roanoke Island twice bybringing many supplies and many families to the island. The first attemptfailed due to a bad food supply so Walter Raliegh tried again a year laterwith his second voyage. Roanoke is considered a lost colony as there wasnever an explanation for the mysterious disappearance of the secondRoanoke Colony. ● Two attempts to settle at Roanoke Island ● First English Settlement in NorthAmerica ● Bad Food Supply ● Tensions with Natives