Page 1: Introduction to Public Health A. Definition and Scope of Public Health Public health is the science and practice of promoting and protecting the health and well-being of communities. It encompasses a wide range of activities aimed at preventing diseases, promoting health, and improving the quality of life for entire populations. B. Historical Development of Public Health The history of public health is marked by milestones such as the development of sanitation systems, the discovery of vaccines, and the implementation of public health laws. Understanding this history helps contextualize the field's evolution. C. Key Concepts: Population Health, Social Determinants of Health Population health focuses on the health outcomes and patterns of health determinants within groups of people. Social determinants of health are factors like socioeconomic status, education, and access to healthcare that significantly influence health outcomes. Page 2: Public Health Frameworks and Models A. Ecological Model The ecological model in public health considers how individual, interpersonal, community, and societal factors interact to influence health. It helps identify intervention points at multiple levels. B. Health Belief Model
The Health Belief Model examines how individuals perceive health threats and their likelihood of taking preventive actions based on their beliefs. It guides health communication and behavior change interventions. C. Social Ecological Model The Social Ecological Model emphasizes the interconnectedness of individual, interpersonal, organizational, community, and societal factors in shaping health. It's used for planning and implementing interventions. D. Precede-Proceed Model The Precede-Proceed Model is a comprehensive planning framework for designing, implementing, and evaluating public health programs. It begins with a social diagnosis to identify health issues and their determinants. Page 3: Epidemiology and Disease Surveillance A. Basic Epidemiological Concepts Epidemiology involves studying the distribution and determinants of diseases in populations. Key concepts include incidence, prevalence, and morbidity rates, as well as understanding causation and risk factors. B. Types of Epidemiological Studies Epidemiological studies include descriptive (identifying patterns), analytical (testing hypotheses), and experimental (interventions) studies. Each type serves specific research purposes. C. Disease Surveillance Systems
Disease surveillance involves monitoring and collecting data on diseases and health events. Surveillance systems help detect outbreaks and trends, allowing for timely interventions. D. Epidemic vs. Endemic vs. Pandemic Epidemics are outbreaks of a disease in a specific geographic area or population. Endemics are diseases consistently present in a particular area. Pandemics are worldwide epidemics, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Page 4: Public Health Interventions A. Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Prevention Public health interventions are categorized into primary prevention (preventing diseases before they occur), secondary prevention (early detection and intervention), and tertiary prevention (managing and reducing the impact of diseases). B. Vaccination and Immunization Programs Vaccination is a key public health strategy for preventing infectious diseases. Immunization programs aim to achieve high vaccination coverage to establish herd immunity and protect populations. C. Health Promotion and Behavior Change Public health promotes healthy behaviors and health promotion strategies, such as health education, to empower individuals and communities to make healthier choices. D. Policy Development and Advocacy
Public health professionals advocate for policies and regulations that improve population health. Policy development, implementation, and evaluation are essential aspects of public health practice.