Business 101: Introduction to Business Page 1 I. What is Business? Business defined: An organized effort to provide goods and services to satisfy needs and generate profit. Types of businesses: Sole proprietorships, partnerships, corporations, and more. II. Business Environment Economic Environment: Economic systems: Capitalism, socialism, mixed economies. Factors of production: Land, labor, capital, entrepreneurship. Social Environment: Culture, demographics, social trends. Corporate social responsibility (CSR): Business impact on society and environment. Technological Environment: Technological advancements and innovations. Influence on operations, communication, and market reach. III. Forms of Ownership Sole Proprietorships: Owned and operated by one person. Easy setup, full control, limited resources.
Partnerships: Two or more owners. General vs. limited partnerships. Shared responsibilities and risks. Corporations: Separate legal entity. Limited liability for shareholders. Complex regulations, governance structure. Page 2 IV. Management and Leadership Management Functions: Planning, organizing, leading, controlling. Decision-making, setting goals, allocating resources. Leadership Styles: Autocratic, democratic, laissez-faire. Situational leadership, transformational leadership. Motivation and Employee Engagement: Incentives, recognition, career development. Employee satisfaction and productivity. V. Marketing Fundamentals Marketing Mix (4Ps):
Product, Price, Place, Promotion. Tailoring offerings to target markets. Market Research: Gathering data on customer preferences. Segmentation, targeting, positioning. Digital Marketing: Online platforms, social media, e-commerce. Expanding reach and customer engagement. VI. Financial Basics Financial Statements: Income Statement, Balance Sheet, Cash Flow Statement. Analyzing a company's financial health. Budgeting and Financial Planning: Forecasting revenues, expenses, profits. Allocating resources effectively. Sources of Funding: Equity financing (selling ownership), debt financing (borrowing). Venture capital, angel investors, bank loans. Page 3 VII. Operations and Supply Chain Management
Production Processes: Inputs, transformation, outputs. Efficiency, quality control, lean principles. Supply Chain Management: Procurement, logistics, distribution. Ensuring timely delivery and cost-effectiveness. Quality Management: Total Quality Management (TQM), Six Sigma. Continuous improvement, customer satisfaction. VIII. Entrepreneurship and Innovation Entrepreneurial Mindset: Identifying opportunities, taking risks. Creativity, adaptability, resilience. Innovation and Disruption: Developing new products, services, business models. Adapting to changing market dynamics. Business Ethics and Legal Considerations: Intellectual property, contracts, consumer protection. Ethical decision-making and social responsibility. IX. Global Business Globalization:
Expanding business beyond national borders. Cultural awareness, international markets. International Trade: Importing, exporting, trade agreements. Tariffs, quotas, trade barriers. Managing Multinational Corporations: Cultural diversity, regulatory challenges. Standardization vs. localization