29/3/23 Microbial Nutrition Nutrients - Substance used for energy production and synthesise the cellular constituents This leads to the growth of organisms 95% of Microbial cell is dry weight .se, It is made up of elements Elements like Carbon CEYWID: oxygen AG Hydrogen Nitrogen - Present in Carbohydrate, Protein, lipid and Sulphur Nucleic acid. Phosphorous potassium. K+ essential for enzyme activity Exist. Calcium Ca 2t, Present in endospores ( Dipicolinic acid) heat resistance Mg Mgat Cofactor Integrity of Cell membrane. Fe. Fe2t Fe3t Part of cytochrome, a carrying proteins Mgat complexes with ATD and Stabilizes the ribosome and cell membrane Principle of Gram staining Maintain - Gram Positive bacteria (Made of Runitor) Phorphate - Attached to and Mg2" cell integrity Teichoraud and Thick Pepticloglycan Present Periplasmic space (encymespresent) (40 layers). cell membrane
Gram -ve batena Porins. outer membrane. (LPS) 000 Periplasmic Space Thin Peptidoglycan Periplasmic space Ycell membrane 10mgth Gram staining i) Crystal Violet 1) Gram's Iodine . iii) Dewlourizer (95% alcohol) iv) Sagranine - -Counter stain. First Crystal violet is added and both the gram tve and -ve are stained. appointment of artician Then Gram's lodine is added and H will bind to teichor acids It fixes the stain firmly But teichoic acids are not present in gram-v -ve So it will washed off Decolourizer is added There is a rule Called thumbrule as lipids are Soluble in alcohol Grain tue has NAM and NAG no lipide So the pores will Shrink the and cell the decolourizer dewloverizes the background except
In gram -ve it move into porce and decolourizes it Lost counter Stain is added so the gram tve already has the colour of 10 stain so no colour change but gram negative has no colour so it will take up the colour of the counterstain and appears as pink. - Other elements needed (Trace elements) - Required in sea small quantity. X Professional Manganese they are ubiquitor and do not usually limit growth Copper zinc part of the enzymes and cofactors and aid in the Cobalt Catalysis reaction. Molybdenum Nickel - -Maintain the Protein structure. Zinc - znat / Present in the active site of the enzyme. It is associated with regulatory as well as catalyte Subunits. eg. Aspartate Carbomys transferase. (E.will active site). at Manganese - Mn , Essential for the transfer of Phosphate gp. (ie, Group transfer, Reaction). lobalt - Part of Nit are B12 (worlanine). Molybdinum - Essential for N2 fixation.