Learning Objectives Pharm Module 1 1. List the Five Rights of Drug Administration and the patient’s rights regarding medications administered by healthcare providers. Patient Drug Time Dose Route 2. Summarize the analysis of the data and development of nursing diagnoses to (1) judge the appropriateness of the prescribed regimen, (2) identify health problems the drug might cause, and (3) determine the patient’s capacity for self-care. This is what we need to look at when deciding what is necessary for care. Evaluation: thin A(assess)D( diagnose) P(plan)I(implement)E(evaluate) 3. Describe Phases I, II, III, and IV of the clinical testing of new drugs. Discuss the ethical and legal implications for the different phases of clinical testing. Phase 1- Test: metabolism, pharmacokinetics, and biologic effects Phase 2- Test: Therapeutic utility and dosage range Phase 3- Test: safety and effectiveness Phase 4- Postmarketing surveillance 4. Outline chemical, generic, and proprietary (trade or brand) names of drugs and explain the benefits, if any, of generic drugs over brand-name drugs. 1. Aspirin - Chemical name: Acetylsalicylic acid - Generic name: Aspirin - Proprietary (brand) names: Bayer, Bufferin 5. List the four main processes that makeup pharmacokinetics. Absorption- is how long it take to get to the blood Distribution- is through movement from the blood to the interstitial space of tissues and from there into the cells Metabolism- is about breaking it down or is it going to be broken down at all and shipped out through the kidney through urine which oftentimes is antibiotics or is it broken down by the liver Excretion- If there is no metabolism like a lot of antibiotics it goes from distribution to excretion 6. Define pharmacodynamics and its relationship to the action of drugs on the body Drug-receptor interaction- what occurs when there is binding of the drug to its receptor Patient’s Functional state- how the pt influences For ex: chronic kidney disease can change a drug response if you can’t excrete it, it can build and you can get toxicity Placebo effects-( if I take this drug it's going to solve all my problems) It’s not that is a psychological factor for taking the drug that can affect it 7. Describe the consequences of drug–drug interactions, the basic mechanisms of drug–drug interactions, and the critical steps in minimizing adverse drug–drug interactions. The consequences of drug-drug interactions include changes in drug effectiveness,increased risk of adverse effects, and decreased therapeutic outcomes. Basic
Learning Objectives Pharm Module 1 mechanisms of drug-drug interactions include pharmacokinetic interactions (alterations in drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion) and pharmacodynamic interactions (interactions at the site of action). Critical steps in minimizing adverse drug-drug interactions involve thorough medication reconciliation, comprehensive medication review, monitoring for potential interactions, individualized dose adjustments, and patient education. 8. Explain the effect of food on drug absorption, on drug metabolism (e.g., grapefruit juice), and on drug toxicity and action, as well as the timing of drug administration with respect to meals. Food can have various effects on drug absorption, drug metabolism, drug toxicity and action, as well as the timing of drug administration with respect to meals. 1. Drug Absorption: Food can affect the rate and extent of drug absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. Some drugs are better absorbed when taken with food, while others may have reduced absorption. This can be due to various factors suchas changes in gastric emptying time, pH of the stomach, or interactions with food components. 2. Drug Metabolism: Certain foods, like grapefruit juice, can interfere with drug metabolism. Grapefruit juice contains compounds called furanocoumarins that can inhibit the activity of enzymes in the liver, specifically cytochrome P450 enzymes. These enzymes are responsible for metabolizing many drugs. When grapefruit juice inhibits these enzymes, it can lead to higher drug levels in the body and an increased risk of adverse effects. 3. Drug Toxicity and Action: Food can also affect the toxicity and action of drugs.Some foods may enhance the therapeutic effect of certain medications, while others may reduce efficacy or increase toxicity. For example, certain foods high intyramine, such as aged cheese or fermented products, can interact with certain antidepressant medications and lead to a potentially dangerous increase in blood pressure. 4. Timing of Drug Administration: The timing of drug administration with respectto meals can also impact drug absorption and effectiveness. Some drugs are recommended to be taken on an empty stomach to ensure optimal absorption, while others require food to reduce stomach irritation or enhance absorption. The package insert or prescribing information for each drug usually provides specific instructions on whether to take the medication with or without food. It is important to note that these effects can vary depending on the specific drug and individual patient characteristics. It is always recommended to consult a healthcare professional or pharmacist for specific guidance on how to take medications with respect to food. 9. Describe types of medication errors, causes of medication errors, ways to reduce medication errors, and ways to report medication errors.
Learning Objectives Pharm Module 1 10. Explain how age and the significance of body weight and composition can be a factor in medication administration, noting that drug sensitivity varies with age and that infants areespecially sensitive to drugs, as are the elderly. Age and body weight and composition are significant factors in medication administration. Drug sensitivity varies with age, with infants and the elderly beingespecially sensitive to drugs. In terms of age, infants have less developed metabolic pathways and renal function, which can affect drug metabolism and excretion. As a result, they are more susceptible to drug toxicity. On the other hand, elderly individuals may havereduced renal and hepatic function, leading to decreased drug clearance and potential accumulation of medications in the body. Body weight and composition also play a role in medication administration. Drugs are often dosed based on weight, as higher body weight may require higherdoses to achieve therapeutic effects. Additionally, adipose tissue can serve as a reservoir for lipid-soluble drugs, which may prolong their effects or increase their potential for toxicity. It is important to consider these factors when administering medications to different age groups. Adjustments in dosing and drug selection may be necessary to ensure safety and efficacy. Close monitoring of drug effects and potential side effects is crucial, especially in populations with increased sensitivity to medications. 11. State the main criterion that differentiates an antiseptic from a disinfectant. Antiseptic- it is applied to living tissues Disinfectant- it is applied to objects, it is too harsh for living tissues, and applied most frequently to instruments and facilities 12. Summarize how healthcare providers can use antiseptics and disinfectants to protect patients and themselves from infections. Antiseptics- applied directly to pt contribute relatively little prophylaxis against infection(except neutropenic) The use of antiseptics by nurses, physicians and those who contact the pt offers much greater protection Effective hygiene is the most single most important factor in preventing the spread of infection in healthcare setting