Chapter 2-psychology nersons- messages arepassed through neurons(penecells) have a nucleus held in place by glial cells (noun'shinsulate, repair damage & support neuron function) compose the nerrous cystem. communicate T othercells and transmit info accross relatively long distances regulate behavior? have dendrites tree. like fibers that receive messages from other neurous. have axons (carry messages received to other nersons) fer axons end in terminal buttons last part Final stop where messages are sent to other nersons through their dendrites. messages received through a naron are electrical electrical messages travel oneway only axons are protected by myelin sheath (protective coat of fat/protein that prevents sexernal messages from Short-circuiting. myelm sheat increases velocity mth which electrical impulses trarel throughaxons axon sends dendrites receive >all or none-law either neuronsfire orthell dont arresting state (-charge of (70) millivolts) nerrons transmit info at a rate of about 330mph. services action potential - IS moving from one send of the axon to the other like a flame moving along a thse speed of action potential depends on axonssize and thickness intensity determines how much of a numents potential firing ratte 18 reached
minor neurons-heuronsthat fine by observing another individual caming out the same behavior amone. boing = watching Synapse space between 2nevrons terminal button reveaseshuntransmitter Carry messages from one heman to another) messages messagestraveling between neurons travel via chemical form * inside nermons are transmitted m electrical form. Chemical messages are either exatatory - make it more likely the humon wilfire inhibitors -prevents deereases neuron likelihood of finng If neisotransmitters are receive, reuptake happens. Re-uptake: terminal buttons take them back. deactivates neirotramsmithers 80 they don't dog the synapse. most common Inhibitormentrans mitter - GABA most common excerratory- Glutamate GABA Glutamate exunratory glutamate-plays on role in memory Gaba- plays a role in moderating variety 0 fbehamors ranging from eating to agonession Steeping
memous system perponal centralnenons system nenros system (bramd spine everything else) spinal cord,as the okas a penalland SNS ANS Contains a bondle of neurons that leave the brain and on down the length of the back somatic autonamic (automate) (voluntary movements) controls parts of the communicates info to and body that automatically from sense organs Keepusaline dammesimputes from brain breathing hear h longs, etc. to muscle sympathetic (fighton fight parasympathetic. "restandidigest' sensory neurons (afferent)-transmit info from the body through the senser thebrain (central nerrous system) motor nersons (efferent) communtcate info from the brain to the muscles and glands SAME > sympathetic dinsion prepares the body for action in Stressful situations by engaging all of the organisms resources to run away or Confront the threat 11 FIGHT OR FLIGHT > parasympathetic vision-autonomic nervous system actstocalm the body after the emergency has ended. .also directs body to Store energy for use in emergencies evolutionary psychology the branch of psychology that identifies how behahor is influenced by genetics Endocrine system-communication network that sends messages through the body via the bloodstream. Secre tes hormones (chemicals that regulate closely linked to the hyrothalamus aflormones= chemical messangers
Hormones take longer to reach their destination than nersons travel throughout the body join a smgle me Pituatary gland regulated by the hyrothalamus master gland"-contris functioning of the restotthet endocrire system. controls stowth. 'Bra in maintains internal balance # of the body through the hyrootha lamus central core ("old brain") Hindbrain( medulla ipons, cerepellum) - medulla controlls breathines /hearsbeat - pons tran smitter of motor information coordinating muscles and integrating movements.- involved in regulating sleep - Cerebellum controls bodily balance, analysis and coordination of Sensory information to problem soining reticular formation-sleep ,arousal, attention. "ever-vigi la nt guard thalamus - sensory relay center except for smell hypothalamus -helps t homeostasis 1 basicsinuwal behanor, eating,self protection, sex umbic system consists of Amygdala Hippocampus emotional processing memory formation and storage.
cerebral cortex(new Blain) glus us the ability tothink, evaluate and make complex judgements Has 4 major lobest frontal Parental tempard lobes are SUP erateol by sulci (deep grooves jccepital brain Frontal- motor - personality, intelligere bron cas. Parietal -sensory - -spatial location atrention,motor control Tem poral- - auditory, language provessing/memory. ocapital - visual aphasia-problems Tanguage Broccas a phassa speech bucomes halting, laborious, ungrammatical speakernable to find ngnt words. wernickes aphasia produces both difficulty in understanding and producing Tanguage. neuroplashity - brains ability to change throughout the life span through the addition of new nersons, new interconnections, and reorganization hemispheres - R and i side of brain control opposite sides of body L Lemisphere- - controls K side of body R hemisphere- - control 6 L side ofborly
Hemisphere R Hemisphere language visual verbal speaking recognizing patsems reading drawnss nunrerbox jasses thinking music tasks reasoning emotions