Psychologm Chapter 7 Thinking brain activity In which people mentally manuplate Information, including words, visual I images, sounds, or other data Thinking transforms information into new and different forms, allommgos to answer Questions, make deasions, solve problems and make plane. mental images representations intremend of an ob) ect orevent constitute a major part of thinking 0 just nighals H earny atone can rely on mental image. EVERY sensong-modality may produce corresponding mental images mental images have many of properties of actual stimull they represent mental imageny can improve vanous skills. EX: athletes use mental imagery ntheir training visualize court, basketball Piano Players mentally rehearse an exercise show (Similar to BRAINSTORMING) schemas concepts mental groupings of similar objects events or people. concepts enable US to organize COMPLEX phenomena into cognitive categones thatare easter to understand and remember concepts influence behavior! Ex approprate to pex an animal after determining That it's a dos, rather than If me were to determine its a wolf prototypes typical, highly representative examples of aconcept that correspond to our mental ima ge or bestexample of the concept EX DOG (we think of common breeds like beagles rather than of rare breeds like shi tzu finish spits, ottorhounds etc.) Think of afrut usually think of 'APPIE' * BEAGLE IS A PROTOTYPE OF THE CONCEPT DOG. Algorithmins and that if applied atproprately guarantees a solution to 9 problem can be used, even if me dontunderstand why it works. EXOlock combination math equation Guarentee a solution, BUT can betime consuming may or may not - dension, but unlike algor hithms-may sometimes lead to errors ITS a SHORTCUT!!! Hennistio:is athinking strategy that May lead US to a solution to a problem or pay deff! EX-AC-tac-toe on (placing X inthe middle) 2 of studying textbook, only notes you took in class. chances ,but does no -guarantee success-
2 types of herristics \ availability hennistic we judgethe likelihood of an event occuming an the basis of howeasily nc can bring to mind examples of theevent EX US being more afraid of dying in a plane crash or being struck by lightin ing. more ppldie from falling out of bed,than lightning stnkes, but plane crashes and lightning Strikes receive more publicity, and they are therefore more easily remembered. 2 familianty (representative) hennistic US to prefer familiar objects, people or things that are unfamiliar or strange to us E1 purchasing book from a familiar author rather Than one you don't recognize even If the one you dont relogm lascems better Danserous ex: mo choosing first diagnosis dlt familiar symptoms, may mlss making amone accurate DX. ( Artificial intelligence field that examines how touse technology to imitate the outcome of human thinking problem solving and creative- activities (32) present blas heunstic - tendency to more hearily high options that are closer to the present than ones further aware Ex-150 today or $180 in \ month? mostepl will choose $150 today -we are actually loosing out 20% This heuristic keeps US from thinking logically U insig ht a sudden awareness of the relationships among-vanous elements that had previous ly appeared to be independent of one another. Kind of like that Aha moment. svdden revalation (?) Exochimpan nees in Wifgang Kohlers expenment gone used for problem Solving up on trying toget banamas Had revelation Stacked urates get to the bananae Fisured Hont! Functional fixedness tendency to think of an object only interms of HS typicall use EX phone camera only used for pictures & as a mimer. Mental ser is r/t functional fixedness stendency to solve problems in a certainwarg, based on past experience ) thereby hindening ones ability to come up with other someons to overcome functional fixedness, you use something for something other than its intended use.
continuation bids tendency to seek out and meight more heavilly information this supports ones initial hypothesis and to ignore contradictory information that Supports alternative hypothesis or solutions Harpens HK we don't want to put the effor in rethinking a problem that appears sived b/c we weight more data that supports our original hypotheses than info That 150 supportive OFH Fake news fabricated information that IS made look and sound likelegitimate news, The intent of persuading readers to accept false information Fake nens spreads taster blc its more 'novel' creativity ability to generate onimal ideas or solve problems in novel ways EX: think of all the uses for a jar. easleto identify examples of creativity than to determine its causes. Divergent thinking creative individuals show divergent thinking Thinking that generates unusual yet nonetheless appropiate responses kind to of responses problems or EXPANDING AN IDEA more different/diverse Questions. DIVERGE spread out "OUT- of the -box" thi nking many ideas diverge convergent * thinking th linking in which a problem is viewed as from brain having a single answer and which produces responsis that are based primarily on knowledge and logic (1) OPPOSITE OF DIVERGENT!! CONVERGE EX what can you do with nanewspaper. convergent read It NARROWING AN IDEA divergent: use it as 9 dustpan produces commonsense kind of responses Cognitive complexity preferance for elaborate,Intricate and complex thoughts & solutions to problems creative PY show commune complexity-have mder range of interests and more independent ,more interested in philosop hical 1 abstract problem Traditional intelligence tests have converging Questions this is why scientists dont relate creativity much with School grades and intelligence when intelligence is measured using traditiona \ intelli gence tests. we become less creative the older we get
government Language communication of information through symbols arranged according to systematic rules -IS a central cognitive ability Grammar-system of rules that determines how our thoughts can be expressed 3 major components of language Phonology study d Phenomesi-smallest basic units of speech that affect meaning, and of the way me use Those sounds to form words and produce meaning syntax milesthat ways mulcate in which words and Phrases can be combineal to form sentences Ex John kidnopped the boy, "John, the kidnapped boy", "The boy kidnopped John'. Semantics meaning of words and sentences every word has particular semantic features. Exd Boy man Both refer to males BUT differ semantically (Inago) Babble: meaningless speechlike sounds made by children from around the age of 31 months to 1 year. (Deaf) Infants exposed to sign lamgerarge from birth "babble" w/their hands infants specialize in language to which they are exposed to critical period: exists for languagedevelopment early inlife in which a childres particularly sensitive to language cues and most easily acquires TA. IFO exposed donng this certical fim e will have dilt overcoming this deficit At 1schildren stop producing sounds that are in the language to which they have been exposed Before speaking-they can understand fairamount of language Language comprehension PRECEDES language production -They understand before they After It children produce 2-word combinations com speak. By2- avg child has vocabulary 0 f>50 WORDS 176 months after grows to several hundred words. Telegraphic speech sentences in which only essential words are used (usually only hours/verbs) 41 Show book instead of y Is honed you the book". "drawing dog me want mikk Age 3- children begin making plurols and form past tense by adding (rd) b overgeneralization phenomenon in which children overapply a language rule,thereby making linguistic errors EX: He runned
Byage I children have acquired bisic roles of language dont attain foll vocab or ability to comprehend /use grammar mles untill ater I Learning-the on approach The theory that language acquisition follows they pnhaples of reinforcement and conditioning * Exchild Saysmama' receives moms hugs praises (reinforcement), which makes repertion more likeng. -learn to speak by bung-rewarded Sharing closer approximations of correct Speech remarded, language be comes more and more like adult speech Nativist approach (to language development) (Theony suggested by Noam Chunsky) this theory doesn't really explain how children acquire language rules. 2 theory that humans are biologically premied to learn language at certain tim es and particular ways - suggests that all the worlds languages share a common underlying structure that is promre /10/03/1cally determined and Universal - UNIVERSAL GRAMMAR 3 Interactionist arrowach to language development) -the newthat language development 15 produced through a combination of genetically determined predispositions and envmimental circomstances that help teach language determin ed by both'genetic and social factors Immersion programs Students are immediatly plunged into English instruction in all subjects Those who immersed in intensive 1 language instruction show growth in the hippocampus Iculturallsa-being a member of 2 cultures and its Psychological impact Bilingual people= 1 cognitive flexibility Bilingual adults have more gray matter volume (1) Intelligence capacity to understand the world, thinkrationally, and use resources effectively when faced T challenges "G" or "G-factor' the single ,general factor for mental ability assumed to 0 Underlie intelligence in some early theones of intelligence * 2 kinds of intelligence Fluid intelligence or crystallized intelligence PROBLEM Fluidintelligencer Intelligence that reflects the ability to think logically SOLVING! reason - we abstractly, use this and when solve Solving problems. personal/political issues, FLUID-N decreases tago
crystallized intelligence accumulation of Information, knowledge and skills that people have learned through expenence and education. reflects facts learned t into in our longterm memory. crystallzed Fluid -decreases Tage increases Tage!! prystall Ized -increases age Menry of multiple Intelligences Proposed By HOWARD GARDNER rather Thanasking - "How SMUA arcyon ask"How are you smart? GARDNER'S theory Theory proposes that he have a minumum of EIGHT(8 different forms of intelligence, ach relitarely independent of others. I musical intelligence 2 Bodily Kinesthetic intelligence - G ardner believes each is linked to an 3 logical mathematical intelligence Independent system inthe brain. 4 Linguistic intelligence -Existential Intelligence -Hesuggests there may be 5 Spatial intelligence even more types of intelligence (such as R) that 6 Interpersonal intelligence involves identifying and the hking about the 7 intrapersonal Intelligence fundamental Questions of human existence 8 Naturalistic Intelligence Gardenersuggests the seperate intelligences to operate in isolation. proposed Stembers Iriardic Theory of intelligence "common sense "Street smarts" Robert practical intelligence-Intelligence related to overall success of living -argues that career successes require a very different type of intelligence Sternberg fro m that required for academic Successes - practs (a) intelligence IS learned mainly through observation of others behavior- - Stemberg argues th at there is 2 more types of ) intellegences Analytical intelligence -traditional Creative intelligence - generation of novel ideas/ products uses past knowledge to solve problems. upply ex listing knowledge to new problems.
Emotional intelligence-set of skills that undenie the accurate assessment evaluation, expression and regulation of emotions -basis of empathy for others settinganereness t social skills Intelligence tests tests that Quantify a persons level of intelligence. helpful in dentifying students in need of special attention Ih school 2d iagnosing specific learning difficulties, 9Helring people make the best educational and vocational choices. Sir Francis Galton believed the she/shape of a persons / read could be used as an ejective measure of intelligence stemmed from personal prejudices He said intelligence is inherited (need configuration, which IS genetically determinel nas r/t brain sne therefore r/t intelligence) Theory was discredited in every new BUT He was the first person to suggest that intelligence could be quantified and measured in an objective manner eventually was tound BRAINSIZE 10 HEAD SIZE, does show some association T intelligence Alfred BINET developed the first real intelligence test. "If performance on certain tasks or test Hens improved with chronological physical, age, pet fo mance could be used to distinguish more intelligent people from less Intelligent dhes within 9 particular age group first fomal intelligencetest was designed to identify the "dullest" Students in Pansschool system in order to provide them t Rmedial aid.' BINET TEST mental age7a age for which a green level of performance IS avg typical EX: if arg Byrold answered 45 items conect, ANYONE who answered 45 items correctly would be assigned a mental age of 8 years. Mental age did Oallow for adequate commensions among people of di ifferent Chronological ages was replaced by IQ (Intelligence Quotent) measure of intellig one thattakes 11th account an individuals mental AND chronological (physical age) Average IQ Score 18 100!!
Avg 1Q-100 Gifte 1QT (above) 130 intellectually disabled (bc/on)-70/75 Binet's test IS now called stanford Binet intelligence scale' IS now mits 5th edition vanes according to age of person adminest ered orally hasboth verbal/nonverbal assessments When a mental age level IS reached at which 0 tems can be answered, the test is over most frequent test in US was densed by David Wechster known as: WAIS-IV (For a dults.) measure verbal comprehension, WISC-V (Forchildren perceptual reasoning, working memory, and processing speed. ,Reliability refers to the consistency of a test in measuring Miat It IS trying to measure. Validity when a test actually measures what it is supposed to measure Norms-standards of test performance that permit the companson of one person's score on atest to the scores of others who have taken the same test. knowing you slored In the top 15% of those that preniusly TOOK it Standarized testst tests for which horms have been developed Adaptive testing -like the NCLEX Intellectual disability a disability charactericed by significant limitations in both intellectual functioning and in adouptive behavior which covers many everyday soual and pratract SKINS and originates before the age of 18 mild intellectual disability ( 160f-55-69) can function independently hold I jobs/have families (development If slower) moderate intellectual disability 1240-54) language motor skills maging Need to howe Some degree of supervision throughout their lives Severe intellectual alsabi lify (1Q 25-39 unable to function profound intellectual disability (1Q
Down syndrome - when a person IS born t 47 chromosomes instead of the usual 46. (there IS an extra copy of the 21st chronosome In most cases of Intellectual disability there 150 apparent biological deficiency, but a history of intellectual disability exists in the family Family intellectual disability apparent biological /genetic problem exists but there IS hx of et intellectual disability among fami ug members Mainstreaming practice of educating students T intellectual deficits and other special needs in regularclasses during specific time periods (Dexcluding them) Culture fair 10 test one that does P discriminate against the members of any minory-group Hentability - the degree to which a characteristic is r/t inherited genetic factors trait t hentability strongly rlt genetic factors heritability traits weakly rlt genetics and more rlt environmental factors We must examine how individuals perform hot the groups to which they belong