major groups of BIOMOLECULES I carbohydrates 2 lpids 3 )proleins 4 nucleotides function of Used for energy includes bNA,RNA, ATP, and cytco Biomolecules and as buildingblock s of acid mp. Cellular components most group of biomotealles consist Carbon Hydrogen and oxygen. conjugated proteins: protein molecules combined-c another kind of biomotecule EV: proteins I liplds: lipoproteins Protein T carbohydrates: glycoproteins lipids T carbohydrates glycolinids polymers large molecules made of repeating units. LIPIDS Blomotecules made mostly of carbon and hydrogen lipids arenonpolar (equally charged) to soluble in water backbone of 914cend and 1-3 fatty acids LIPIDS divide into categones \ FAIL 2 OILS
Fats Solid a room temperature oils liquid D room temperature. 10ng lipids are a chain of carbon and hydrogen atoms Connected by Single bonds or double bonds > Saturated fatty auds NO double bonds between carbons they are saturate N hydrogens The more saturated, more solid H H R # to saturated fathy are SOLID @ room temp H3C - - OH H H H 7 monoussaturated fatty auds-HAve ONE double rond between the carbons Single Sonds For each double bond the molecule has 2 ferrer hydrogen atoms attached to the Carbonchain 7 H If # H it usually liQuid a room temp 0-0 = - = kinked or bent formation!! H H 0 saturated doublebonds hydrogen Formation of upids glycerol buckbone glycerol t 1 fatty acid = monoglycende glycerol t 2 fatty aicid = diglycende glycerol t 3 fatty auds= Inglycendy 1 most common morethan 90 of lipids are ( triglycendes can befound in oil counutal avocad do,meats, manycendes!!) seeds / fastoods) Lipid-related molecules elco Sanoids (prostaglandins) 20 carbontatty auds Ta complete/partial carbonning steroids # cholesterol IS the primary source of steroid in human body)-Inked carbon rings phosphollpids 2 fallpaads and a phosphate group carpohydrates most abundant biomokeule made up of carbon and water general formula(CH2O)n or Cntl2n On & for each carbon there are 2 hydrogens and 1 oxygen
Carbohydrates dinde into 3 categones 4 monosacehandes 2 dissachandes 3 polysacehandes monosacchandes simple sugars. (fructose) most common are building blocks of complex carbohydates and have e the 5 carbons (like ribose) or SIX carbons (11keglucose) CH105-R1base C5H10O4 -Deoxyribose forms sugar Phosphate forms sugar phosphate backbone of RNA backbone of DNA Single sugar molecule Have 5 carbons Simple Fructise sugars Glucose *Has 6 carbons* Galactose D.Sacchandes consistor glucose plus another monosacchande. Sucrose I Glucose + tructose Maltose = Glucose Glucose Double linked sugarmolemics Lactose = Glucose + Galactose (complex polysacchindes are glucose polymers largechains of carbohydrates all living cells Store gmcose forenerry in the form of 9 polysacehande ex: whole grain pasta ,rie, potato make. 096 10 or rmore sugar molecules linked together
Oligo peptide 2-9 amino auds polypeptide- 10-100 amino acids proteins> 100 am moauds PROTEINS Protems are polymers of smaller building blocks molecules: amino acids all amino auds have a carboxyl group (-COOH) t an amino group(-Nile), and a hydrogen attaced to the same carbon H NH2 OF Nitrogen in the amino group makes proteins our major dietary source of nitrogen R "R"group differs In their size, shape and ability to form hydrogen bonds or Ions. Different R groups make anino acids react differently clotter molecules HR group IS the only difference peptide bontamino group of one amino ands roms The carboxy group of another polypeptides-chain of amino ands essential amino acids auds That can resunthesized from scratch by the organism, fast enough to supply HS demand ,and must therefore comefrom dlet Primary structure linear sequence of amino aads present in a protein amino acids are attached to each other by a pephde bond 'theorder of amino auds secondary structure created primarilyby hrydrogen bonds betweenad.jacent chains loops on Helix- most common secondary Structure stabilized by hydrogen bonding B sheet Hydrogen bonds connects these can be parallel or anti parallel fashion Tertiary structure arrangement of protein in a 3D. "R groups interacting inths hasother bonds Stage Quatemary Structure multiplesubsunitscumbire T o/covalent bonds.
Nucleotides Biomolecules that play an important bole in energy-transfer and Information transfer Single nucleoticles contain ATP and cyclic Amp Nucleic acids cont storeand tra insmitgenetic information (KNA/DNA Nucleondes consis of (1) phosphate group, 5-carbon Sugar and (3) a carbon (2) nitrogen ring structure called a nitrogenous base Base - phosphaters ugar * (larger) Punnes - have a double ring structure (A) Adenine (G) Guanine Ribose Sugar base (Smaller) Deoxynbo: se pyramidinesi-have singlening (C) cytosine (T) Thymino (u)uracil Phosphate Singenodeonole molecules have 2 critical functions 1 capture and transfer energy highenergy electrons ATP, ADP, NAD, FAD) 2 and incell to cell communication (CAMP) nucleic acids function in information storage and transmission Base-Paining (nucleotide polymers) S ugar of one nucleutide bonds with the phosphate of the nex G" only pales) forming chain, The sugar-phosphate chains or (BACKBONE) with " are the same for every mucleic and molecule Nucleotide chains form Strands of DNA and RNA A" only RNA SINGLE Strand nucleic and (ribose as the Sugar in the backbore pairs with and four bases (A)(G)(C)(U) IT" or "I" RNA only contains uracil OT DNA - double helpx 30 structure that forms when 2 DNA strands Ink through hydrogen bonds between complimentary bases Deoxynbose is the backbon (+)(9)(c)(I)
Elements simplest type of matter- 3 major over 100 elements but only dements I oxygen intrebody 2 carbon make 90% of bodys Mass 3 hydrogen > protons (1)-positive protons +) determine the element (atomic#) > nevirons (0)-neutral neutronslo) determinethe isotope 7 electrons (-)-negative electrons - form (ovalent bonds, create lons when/lost/gained, capture store energy, create free madicals. protons + neutrons=automic mass atomic # is always the bottom# on the table of elements lons have an electn calcharge - lons hare either lost/galned electrons If they re positive -lost electrons It theyre negative-gained electrons Isotopes - Involve neutrons Isotopes- version of an element that have different #of neutrons Isotopes can gamor loose electrons to become Ions cations ( positively charged) anions negatively charged) 4 important roles of electrons Informationalent bond coratent bonds bind atoms together to form morcules 2 lons - If an atom gains/100 ses one or moreelection, it acquires an electn (a) charge and becomes an ion. LONS are electrons capture energerfrom environment andtransfer Attoother atoms the basis for electrical signaling 3 unstable molecules an of Highenerry Freeradials with development upaired electron discases contribute to aging and
ptimeasures anion(-) -gandelectrons. - 1011 Cation (+) -Iostelectrons when atoms share electrons = covalent bonds covalent Ionic bond are STRONG Hydrogen & Vander Waals forces - WEAKER 2or more atoms = molewles Bonds Covalent Bonds nonpolar bonds molecules have an even distribution of electrons (nerthel) (-)or polar - -have regions of partial charge. (Ex: water) Noncoratent Bonds lonic Bonds electrostatic attractions between lons. Ex: sodium chlonde Hydrogen Bonds formbetnees 9 hydrigen atom and a nearby oxygen weak hitrogen or fluorine. VanDer Waals -weak nons pertic attractions between atoms solubility - ability of solute to dissolve In a solvent Hydrophilic -Soluble in water Hydrophobic - -Q soluble In water sphobia of water Solute- any substance that dissoires in a llouid Solvent - the/1Quid inwhicha solute dissolves (water is Universal solvent) Solution - combination of solutes dissolved In a solvent concentration - amount of solute per UNH volume of solution ACIDS are molecules that release Hr when dissomes In water specifity protems affulity -theologree to which a protein IS attracted to its