Epiclemiology Unevinci Defenition The study g the distribution and determinants I health-related states or events in Specified population and the application g this study to the prevention & control g health problems. promoter Unrevious NJCL Anatomy study Includes Survicellance obser vation. hypothem testing analytic research and experiments Distribution rejers to analyin g time person places & classes g people affected Dates minants Includes Jaction that injury health biological chemind physical social; cullenal, economic gendie E behaniousal Health related events & states rejess to d/s. behanious, suchas use g tobacco positive health states, reaction to prevenin regimes & peroniscon & we y health services. specified population Include those with identifiable characteristics such as occupational groups. Application to prevention E control The aims g public health to promite, protect and restore health , Major jocus I epidemiology is: Prevent E control d Is for correct diagnosis Promote health. Correct heat ment So need to know the cause H what is cause ?? Cause 9 a dls or injury is am event, condition, chanacteristic as a combination I there Jaclons which plays an important scole in producing health outcome. A came must precede the an outcome.
Sufficient & Necessary cause Supjicient Inevitably produces / initiates an out come. It cause present d/s always occur (Necessary' Outcom cannot develop in its absence 4 cause absent, dls cannot occur. Each sujjicient course has a necessary cause as a component Eg: outbreak g a Joodbonne injection. salmonella diarrhora Sufficient cause is chicken salad & creamy denert Necenary cause is ingestion g Salmonella bacteria Necen am Mainutrition Eg Genetication Exposureto bacteric Susceptible host Injection Tuberculosis 1 enough powerly) Deterministic causality Neurary E sujjicient Necency but not sufjivent sujjucent but not recenary Neither necemary hor sufficient eg Tobacco use cames cerebnovarcular d/s 11 is of interest that even in 1654, John snow thought that a living organism was responsible Jon thedist - Able to prevent Cholena cover bejon the responsible argomins - let alone its MOA - had been identified
Malmulation (Genjactur Expesius to conforminate water increased ingestion g Cholera susceptibility V. Choleras Poverty