Analysis Of The Implementation Of Mininal Service Standard Policies To Improve The Quality Of Public Services In The Regions Policy Implementation Once a state policy has gained legitimacy, in order for intended impact to be obtained, it may need to be implemented. Van Meter and Van Horn (1978), formulated the implementation process as "those actions by public or private individuals (or groups) that are directed at the achievement of objectives set forth in prior policy decisions". Fudge and Barrett (1979) who state that the theory of the implementation process works from some implementation concepts that state that implementation is not a "putting policy into effect" which emphasizes neglect of the interaction between policy formulators and implementers. The concept of the implementation process is a separate unit of analysis. The implementation perspective is the science and practical knowledge in the administrative field possessed by policy formulators and implementers that allows them to develop approaches to policy implementation. This implementation perspective is usually shared by practitioners, not just any actor participating in the implementation process. Minimum Service Standard Concept and Policy In order to decentralize, the Central Government has handed over certain government affairs to the Regional Governments so that the obligation to provide these services shifts to the regions. However, with the principle of regional autonomy in a unitary state, autonomy in the implementation of these affairs is certainly limited by the existence of the state as the highest institution formed from the consensus of the people in certain territories, with certain constitutions and arrangements drawn up and agreed upon together to regulate common life. The Central Government has the authority to exercise control over the implementation of these affairs. So that the State establishes certain regulations for this purpose is common. This is because basically the State, morally and legally has an obligation to ensure that its citizens, in every
region of the country, get services with certain quality and standards through various regulations. One of the guarantees to get services with certain quality and standards can be achieved by applying Minimum Service Standards. Logically, minimum service standards can be applied to achieve various goals. First, to be able to provide a precise definition of the service in question. Second, provide information to plan to provide services for the community at the local level. In addition, this information can also be a benchmark (benchmark) in monitoring and evaluating public service performance. Furthermore, the existence of this standard also allows the Central Government to give emphasis to services that are national priorities. Finally, existing standards can be a necessary element for estimating financing needs to provide services. Until now, there are relevant ministries that have issued SPM references to be applied to all regions in Indonesia: 1). Public Housing Sector based on Regulation of the Minister of Public Housing Number 22 of 2008 concerning SPM for Public Housing Sector of Provincial and Regency / City Areas; 2). The field of domestic government based on the Regulation of the Minister of Home Affairs Number 62 of 2008 concerning SPM for the Field of Domestic Government in Districts / Cities; 3) Social sector based on the Regulation of the Minister of Social Affairs Number 129 of 2008 concerning SPM for Social Sector of Provincial and Regency / City Regions; 4). Health Sector based on Minister of Health Regulation Number 741 of 2008 concerning SPM in the Health Sector in Districts / Cities; 5). The field of women and children based on the Regulation of the Minister of Women's Empowerment Number 1 of 2009 concerning Integrated SPM for Witnesses and/or Victims of Trafficking in Persons and the Elimination of Sexual Exploitation of Children and Adolescents in Districts/Municipalities, and Regulation of the Minister of Women's Empowerment and Child Protection Number 1 of 2010 concerning Minimum Service Standards for Integrated Services for Women and Children Victims of Violence; 6). LH sector based on the Regulation of the Minister of Environment Number 19 of 2010 concerning Environmental SPM for Provincial and Regency / City Regions; 7). Family planning field based on the Regulation of the Head of BKKBN Number 55 / HK- 010 / 85 of 2010 concerning SPM for Family Planning and Family Welfare in Districts / Cities; 8).
The field of education based on the Regulation of the Minister of National Education Number 15 of 2010 concerning SPM for Basic Education in Districts / Cities; 9). Nakertrans Field based on the Regulation of the Minister of Manpower and Transmigration Number Per 15 / MEN / X / 2010 concerning SPM in the Field of Manpower; 10). PU and Spatial Planning based on the Regulation of the Minister of Public Works Number 14l PRT / M12010 concerning SPM in the Field of Public Works and Spatial Planning; 11). Food Security based on Minister of Agriculture Regulation Number 65/Permentan/OT. 140/12/2010 concerning SPM for Provincial and District/City Food Security; l2). The field of Arts is based on the Regulation of the Minister of Culture and Tourism Number PM. 106/HK. 501/MKP/2010 concerning SPM in the Field of Art; 13). Communication and Information Sector based on the Regulation of the Minister of Communication and Information Number 22 of 2010 concerning SPM for the Field of Communication and Information in Districts / Cities (Circular Letter of the Minister of Home Affairs Number 100 / 676 / SJ dated March 7, 2011). 14). Regulation of the Minister of Transportation Number: PM.81 of 2011 concerning Minimum Service Standards in the Field of Transportation of Provincial and Regency / City Regions; 15). Regulation of the Head of the Investment Coordinating Board Number 14 of 2011 concerning Minimum Service Standards for Provincial and District / City Investment; With regard to the implementation of SPM mentioned above and as a derivative of PP Number 65 of 2005, Permendagri Number 6 of 2007 concerning Technical Guidelines for the Preparation and Determination of Minimum Service Standards, where the scope of the Permendagri includes: a) Types of basic services guided by SPM, b) SPM indicators, c) SPM value, d) Deadline for achieving SPM, and e) Organizing the implementation of SPM. The description for each of these scopes is as follows: (1). Determination of the type of basic services guided by SPM refers to the following criteria: a). is part of the implementation of mandatory affairs; b) is a very basic service that every citizen is entitled to at a minimum so that its availability is guaranteed by the constitution, national long-term plans, and international conventions that have been ratified, regardless of the income, social, economic, and political background of citizens; c) supported by the latest data and information that is complete nationally as well as
background knowledge and skills needed in the delivery of basic services as referred to in letter b, with various implications, including institutional implications and financing; and d). especially those that do not make material profits; (2). The determination of minimum service standard indicators illustrates the following: a) the level or amount of resources used, such as facilities and infrastructure, funds, and personnel; b) the stages used, including in the measurement efforts, such as programs or activities carried out, including time, location, financing, implementation, management and outputs, results and impacts; c) the form of performance achievement, including services provided, perceptions, and changes in community behavior; d) the level of benefit perceived as added value, including quality of life, consumer or community satisfaction, the business world, government and local government; and e). related to the existence of information systems, reporting and evaluation of local government implementation that ensures the achievement of SPM can be monitored and evaluated by the government on an ongoing basis. 3). Determination of SPM Value: a) quality based on technical standards of the type of basic services guided by SPM by considering the highest service standards that have been achieved in the field of basic services concerned in the region and empirical experience on how to provide the basic services concerned that have been proven to produce the quality of service to be achieved, as well as its relationship with SPM in the same service field and with SPM in the field of other services; b) coverage of basic service types guided by SPM nationally by considering national and regional financial capabilities as well as regional institutional and personnel capabilities in the field of basic services concerned, variations in regional conditions, including geographical conditions. (4). SPM achievement deadline: The SPM achievement deadline is the period of time determined to achieve SPM nationally. In determining the deadline for achieving SPM must consider: a) the status of the type of basic service concerned at the time it is determined; b) the objectives and level of basic services to be achieved; c) variations in communication factors, demographics and geography of the region; and d). national and regional capabilities, potentials, and priorities. (5). The organization of SPM implementation includes: procedures for the preparation and determination of SPM and guidance and supervision of its implementation.