Axiological Ethics Axiological ethics classifies values into three levels or modes, namely useful values (useful, utilitarian), pleasurable values, and moral values (befitting, becoming ). Useful value exists in material objects and non-human living things. Called useful, because it can be utilized to achieve other goals. The value of pleasure and pleasure lies in material objects and living beings. It is called delicious and pleasurable, because values bring a sense of satisfaction, pleasure, and pleasure to people who consume, obtain, or have it. Moral values are the values that make a human being good as a human being. This value is not just a means or a result of activity, but a value that can be sought and pursued in itself. Unless classified into three modes, axiological ethics also distinguishes value into intrinsic and instrumental value. Intrinsic values are those that people pursue for their own sake, for example: mental health, science, and friendship. Instrumental values are good values for achieving other values, such as sports, study skills, and discipline. In addition, axiological ethics distinguishes values in other ways, namely principal values and side values. Core values are values that are more fixed, long-lasting, and valuable, such as physical health. Side value is value that does not have to exist, is not fixed and short-lived, such as exercise. Anarchism In interacting, people are always faced with authority, because authority exists in all fields, both political, social, economic, cultural, ethical, moral, and religious and is in all layers of life of individuals, families, communities, organizations, countries and the world. The form of authority can be informal, without a basis of official guidelines or regulations, semi-formal with the basis of semi-official statutes, and formal that is, holding on to official laws, laws, regulations, and ordinances. Anarchism comes from the Greek words "an" meaning no, without, not and arkon meaning ruler, king or leader. According to Kinna (2005), anarchism is a doctrine that frees society from political domination and economic exploitation directly or indirectly from government actions. Anarchism is the view and stance that the ruler in society, whether the form of government or king, is not necessary. The adherents of anarchism not only hold views
and stands, but also propagate and fight for it in various ways and manifest it in various movements, groups, and organizations. To achieve this anarchist ideal, anarchists establish power and use violent means to rebel against the ruler and unite him. Anarchism is basically a theory and political movement that in its development gave birth to ethical views and stances. According to anarchism, ethics, values, norms, and ethical criteria or commonly referred to by society as ethical values, actually do not exist. These ethical values are only the result of the invention of the ruler to regulate, tame, and use them for their own interests. As an ethical view and stance, anarchism is not entirely wrong. The efforts of rulers to create values, create norms and laws, and formulate ethical criteria, are not for the good of people, as individuals or groups, but for the sake of good, and self-benefit. However, the misappropriation cannot be concluded that values, norms, and criteria do not exist, because through norms criteria can be formulated to determine what is good and bad. Anarchistmeetism is a correction of the wrong practice of the use of power and authority, but its anti-domination and political and ethical stance is clearly unacceptable, because it destroys the system of life and ethical values necessary for the welfare and good of human life both individually and collectively. Developmentalism The term developmentalism comes from the word development (English) which means growth, development, development. Developmentalism is a view related to growth, development and development. Developmentalism is optimistic. According to this view, man and the world can grow and develop to become more advanced and better. In this case there are two branches of developmentalism, namelyhumanist developmentalism and secularist developmentalism. In this description, only humanist developmentalism will be discussed. According to humanist developmentalism, human beings have the basis and ability to become better and achieve wholeness and perfection as human beings. In this connection, what is needed is a supportive living environment and assistance that can
improve and develop these human capabilities. Humanist developmentalism holds that human beings as they are have not yet reached the proper state and stage of life. Not a few people are not aware of the nature of his humanity and the special abilities that exist in him. They do not realize that man has a complete ability, that is, a physical ability in the form of energy; the mental ability to think about the existing, about the past that has already happened, and about the future by depicting possibilities and shadows; voluntary or voluntary ability to pursue and realize material, economic, aesthetic or beautiful value, social, ethical-moral, and religious religious; as well as the appreciative or affective ability to feel. This unawareness results in them being unable to develop and utilize it. People's unawareness of man and his abilities occurs, in addition to originating from man himself, is also caused by factors that hinder the formation and role of consciousness. Barriers to the development of consciousness are a repressive environment, a life that is too heavily regulated, too many signposts, and an overly directed foresight. Important points put forward by the view of developmentalism are associated with human efforts to develop themselves, including three things. First, an understanding of self-development. Self-development involves the outward-mental, personal-social, and material-spiritual aspects. The range of self-development is not limited to the world alone, but also reaches the realm of immortality. These aspects of self-development can be partially understood or fully understood. In fact, the two developments are inseparable and integrally fused. The ideal self-development is comprehensive, although in the implementation it is carried out part by part according to step by step. Secondly, the direction of development. The direction of development is determined by an understanding of its facets and range. If Development is only understood and pursued in the external field, development will only emphasize the outward (physical) appearance. Conversely, if only understood and cultivated in the inner field, development only revolves around the heart, mind and mind. The correct direction of self-development is when it covers all aspects and human reach. When the direction of self-development does not take into account the extent to which life transcends life in this world, developmentalism easily turns into naturalism, which holds that man as nature prescribes, is complete and self-sufficient, and does not need supernatural elements and overcome himself. Third, ways to strive
for self-development. An understanding of the right development and a complete direction in striving for self-development does not necessarily make people take the appropriate way. True development boils down to personal maturity, productivity, and a real impact in the field and on those around you. Development is not a point, but rather a process. To achieve development at a high stage, perseverance and relentless effort are required. Human beings do need to develop and be developed. But the development is sought not for the sake of its own development, but for the development of humanity as a whole.