The earth is surrounded by an atmosphere made up of many different substances, some of which are elements. and some of which are compounds too. MOLECULAR COMPOUNDS. Most non-metal clements are molecular, and most of them are diatomic, meaning they go around in pairs. Examples of these are N_2, Cl_2, O_2 and Br_2. Most compounds between non-metals are also molecular, e.g. H_2O, CO_2 and NH_3. All of these substances have very strong covalent bonds between the atoms, but much weaker forces holding the molecules together. It is these 'intermolecular bonds' that break when boiled or heated, not the covalent ones. And because the weak intermolecular bonds break so easily, they have low melting points & boiling points. The easiest way to represent covalent bonds is to use either a 200 or a 3D molecular diagram. COVALENT BONDING - HIGHER. Covalent bonding is when two non-metal atoms share a pair of electrons in the outer electron-shell in order to completely fill it (usually with eight electrons). Most importantly, covalent bonds are very strong.The strong bond between atons as a result of this is called electrostatic attraction between the posative nuclei and the negative electrons. Sometimes an atom is part of multiple bonds like carbon dioxide, in which one carbon atom is covalenty bonded to two oxygen atoms. IONIC BONDING. When metals react with non- metals, electrons are transferred from the metal to the non-metal, creating an ion. The resulting compound is an ionic compound. The metal and non-metal are charged [+] and [-] respectively.There is a strong electrostatic force of attraction between the two oppositely charged ions called an ionic bond. Ionic compounds arranged in a lattice form crystals, like in sodium chloride (NaCl2). Because of the strong bond, lots of energy is needed to break them, and so ionic compounds have high MPs and BPS. They do not, however, conduct electricity because the ions are firmly held in place, which means they cannot move to conduct an electrical current. As a liquid they are free to move, and therefore do conduct electricity. Diamond and Graphite are good examples of how covalent bonds differ within compounds. Diamond has strong covalent bands throughout unlike Graphite, which has strong bonds between atoms but not between layers, and as a result it flakes easily. THE LETHOSPHERE. All solid matter on Earth is part of something called the lithosphere, composed of the crist and the mantle. ELECTROLYSIS-STEP BY STEP. 1)Break up the stucture, either through heating or dissolving. 2)Place the electrodes in the solution; they will pull the ions apart. In the example of copper chloride, all the positive metal ions (the Copper) go to the cathode, & the negative ions (chlorine) go to the anode.