Communication Contexts Communication does not take place in a social vacuum, but rather in the context of a specific situation. Many communication experts classify communication based on its context. As with the definition of communication, the context of communication is described differently. According to Verderber, for example, the context of communication consists of: a. Physical Context b. Social Context c. Historical Context d. Psychological Context e. Cultural Context The most common indicator for classifying communication by its context or level is the number of participants involved in communication. It is known as “intrapersonal communication, dyadic communication, interpersonal communication, (small) group communication, public communication, organizational communication, and Mass Communication. Mass communication involves many communicators, takes place over low physical distances, allows the use of one or two sensory channels (sight, hearing), and usually does not allow immediate feedback. In contrast, interpersonal communication involves a relatively small number of communicators, takes place at close physical distance, is face-to-face, allows the maximum number of sensory channels, and allows immediate feedback. In reality, communication is so dynamic, so many variations of communication that we can find with different nuances. In interpersonal communication the participants can control the topic of conversation, in Mass Communication The Communicator (message producer) controls the topic the customer who wants another topic must change the source of the information.
In interpersonal communication, the participants can emphasize the message by repeating the message, or with certain verbal or nonverbal pressure, or ask each other but in Mass Communication the flexibility is very limited if it does not mean nothing at all. Categorization by level is most commonly used to see the context of communication, starting from communication that involves the largest number of participants. There are four levels of communication that many experts agree on, namely: 1. Intrapersonal communication is communication with oneself. For example, thinking. This communication is the foundation of interpersonal communication and communication in other contexts, although in the discipline of communication is not discussed in detail and thoroughly. The success of our communication with others depends on the effectiveness of our communication with ourselves. 2. Interpersonal Communication Interpersonal communication is communication between people face to face,which allows each participant to capture the reaction of others directly, both verbal and nonverbal. A special form of interpersonal communication is dyadic communication that involves only two people, such as a husband and wife, two close friends, and student teachers, etc. Characteristics of dyadic communication are : the parties are communicating dalanm distances close; communicating parties send and receive messages simultaneously and spontaneously, both verbal and nonverbal. The success of communication is the responsibility of the communication participants. 3. Group Communication A group is a group of people who have a common goal, who interact with each other to achieve a common goal (interdependence), know each other and see them as part of the group, although each member may have a different role. This group for example is a family, discussion group, problem solving group, or a committee that is meeting to take a decision. Feedback from one participant in Group communication can still be identified and responded to directly by other participants.
4. Public Communication Public communication is communication between a speaker and a number of people (audiences), which cannot be recognized one by one. Such communication is often also called a speech, lecture, or lecture. Public communication usually takes place more formally and more difficult than interpersonal or group communication, because public communication requires careful preparation of messages, courage and the ability to deal with a large number of people. The characteristics of public communication are: it takes place in a public place (public), for example in a classroom, in a hall or other place that is attended by a large number of people; it is a social event that is usually planned; there is an agenda; several people are appointed. Public communication is often aimed at illuminating, entertaining or persuading. 5. Organizational Communication Organizational communication occurs within an organization, is formal and informal, and takes place in a network that is more basic than group communication. Therefore, the organization can be defined as a group of groups. Formal communication is communication according to organizational structure, namely downward communication, upward communication and horizontal communication. While informal communication does not depend on organizational structures, such as peer communication and gossip. 6. Mass Communication Mass Communication (mass communication) is communication that uses mass media, both print, electronic, relatively expensive managed by an institution or institutionalized person, addressed to a large number of people spread over many places, anonymous, and heterogeneous.Inter-personal communication, Group Communication, Public Communication and communication oganisasi also take place in the process to prepare the message conveyed by the mass media.
7. Other communication contexts communication contexts can be designed based on certain criteria, for example based on the degree of involvement of technology in communication. Marry B. Cassata and Molefi K. Asante. Comparing three ways or modes of communication between personal communications.
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Communication Contexts: From Intrapersonal to Mass Communication