1- Parenteral route of drug administrationinclude all of the following except:A) Intramuscular.B) Subcutaneous.C) Intrathecal.D) Sublingual.
2-All of the following are advantages of sublingualadministration Except:A) Needs special experience for administration.B) Rapid onset of action.C) Bypasses ﬁrst pass effects in liver.d) The effect of the drug could be terminated byspitting out the tablet.
3- Advantages of the I.V route include all of thefollowing Except:A) Has the most rapid onset of action.B) Suitable for oily solution.C) Suitable for large volume of drugs.d) Suitable for irritating drug solution .
4- All of the following are characteristic of oralroute Except:A) Is the least expensive among the other routesB) Needs highly puriﬁed form of the drug.C) May give an inconsistent rate of absorption .D) May lead to gastric irritation and vomiting.
5- sublingual drug administration has the followingadvantages Except:A) It avoid ﬁrst pass metabolism .B) Rapid onset of action.C) It is suitable for unconscious patients.D) Large surface area of absorption.
6- which of the following is among the limitationsfor the use of drugs I.M :A) Oily solutions.B) Moderate volumes of drugs.C) Anticoagulant therapy.D) Suspensions.
7- Advantages of inhalational route ofadministration include all the following except:A) Wide area of absorption.B) Self administration is possible.C) Suitable for irritant drugs.D) Rapid access to the circulation.
8- Regarding subcutaneous route of drugadministration ,it is convenient for:A) large volume.B) Suspension form of drugs.C) Highly irritant drugs.D) Emergency conditions.
9- Enteral route of drug administration include allthe following except:A) Oral.B) Rectal.C) Intrathecal.D) Sublingual.
10- Drug administration via mucus membraneinclude all the following dosage forms except:A) Nasal spray.B) Suppositories.C) Volatile liquid inhalation .D) Subcutaneous pellets.
11- regarding ampoule dosage form ONE of thefollowing statements is incorrect:A) Could be used by I.V injection.B) Contain multiple doses.C) Contain sterile solution.D) Contain only one dose.
12- one of the following routes of administrationcharacterized by very rapid onset of action:A) Subcutaneous implantation.B) Oral administration of tablets .C) I.M injection.D) Sublingual administration .
13- the most suitable method for drugadministration in patient with hypertensiveemergency is:A) Subcutaneous administration .B) Oral administration .C) I.M injection.D) I.V injection.
14- subcutaneous administration is the mostsuitable when the drug is:A) Highly irritant.B) Available in a suspension form.C) To be administrated in large volume.D) To be administrated in an emergency state.
15-Orally administrated magnesium sulphate to arat produces one of the following effects:A) loss righting reﬂex.B) Purgative effect.C) Slow and shallow respiration.D) Constipation.
16- All of the following dosage forms are usedtopically except:A) Elixirs.B) creams.C) Lotions.D) Dusting powder.
17- Concerning injectable formulations, all thefollowing are true except:A) There are sterile liquid solutions orsuspensions.B) Ampoules are usually intended for single doseuse.C) Vials are usually intended for multi dose use.D) Suspensions can sometimes be injected I.V.
18- Concerning the dose response curve, all ofthe following are true except:A) A competitive antagonist shifts the curve to theright.B) A non competitive antagonist shifts the curveto the left and downwards.C) A competitive antagonist does not affect theheight of the curve.D) A non competitive antagonist shifts the curveto the right and downwards.
19- all of the following are examples of phase 1metabolic reactions except :A) Hydroxylation of phenytoin.B) Reduction of chloramphenicol.C) Acetylation of isoniazid .D) Hydrolysis of procaine.
20- Regarding drug potency, ONE of the followingstatements is correct:A) A drug is more potent when it produces a certainresponse in a smaller dose.B) It is the most important character of the dose-response curve.C) LD50 is used to compare the potency of the drugs.D) A drug of high potency is less economic .
21- regarding dose-response curve ,all of thefollowing are correct except:A) The slope gives a good idea about the drug safety.B) A steeper slope indicates that the ratio betweentoxic and therapeutic dose is small.C) Eﬃcacy is the maximal effect produced by the drugafter which there is no increase in response even ifthe dose is increased.D) Biological variability in drug action is not commonamong individuals.
22-Concerning the parameters of a dose-responsecurve, which one of the following is correctregarding a more potent drug?A) It has a larger median effective dose.B) It has a higher biological variation.C) It has a greater biological activity per unit weight .D) It has a higher magnitude of effects.
23- In a dose-response curve ,all the followingstatements are correct except:A) A drug is considered more eﬃcient, if it has moremaximal effect.B) A drug is considered less eﬃcient, if it has lowerceiling effect.C) A drug is considered safe, if it has a steeper slope.D) A drug is considered safe, if it has a less steep slope.
24- phenobarbitone was injected into group of micefor seven consecutive days. On the 8th daythiopental sodium was injected and the sleepingtime was recorded and compared to saline treatedcontrol group. One of the following observationswas recorded:A) The sleeping time was less that of control group .B) The sleeping time was more prolonged than that ofcontrol group.C) The sleeping time was equal to that of control group. D) Thiopental does not produce hypnosis in allanimals.
25- In an experiment 3 groups of rats were I.Pinjected by thiopental, group 1 was starved for 24hours prior to thiopental, group 2 was injecteddaily by an I.P injection of phenobarbital whilegroup 3 was left as a control. Thiopental will havethe longest duration of general anesthesia in whichone of these groups:A) Group 1.B) Group 2.C) Group 3.D) The same duration in all groups.
26- Your answer in the previous question was basedon one of the following :A) Starvation induce the liver microsomal enzymes.B) Starvation inhibits the liver microsomal enzymes.C) Phenobarbitone inhibits the liver microsomalenzymes.D) Phenobarbitone induces the liver microsomalenzymes.
27- In a group of mice injected with hexobarbital,the sleeping time of mice was remarkablyshortened. It was concluded that these mice mighthave been:A) Pretreated with phenytoin.B) Previously starved for a long period.C) Pretreated with an enzyme inhibitor .D) Infected with schistosomiasis.
28- Stimulation of liver microsomal enzymes:A) Require increase the dose of some drugs .B) Require decrease the dose of some drugs .C) Prolongs the duration of action of a drug.D) Intensiﬁes the unwanted reaction of a drug.
29- Three mice injected were given thiopental bydifferent routes. the ﬁrst one was given the drug byI.P injection, the second was given I.M and thethird one was given I.V. which mouse loses its rightreﬂex ﬁrst?A) First mouse.B) Second mouse.C) Third mouse.D) None of the above.
30- In the previous question which mouse regainedits conscious last:A) First mouse.B) Second mouse.C) Third mouse.D) None of the above
31- Drug A produces a lowering in the blood pressure by 30% in a dose of 5 mg/kg while drug B produces a lowering in the blood pressure by 30% in a dose of 25 mg/kg . select the false answer:A) Drug B is 5 times more potent than drug A.B) Drug A is 5 times more potent than drug B.C) The 2 drugs may have the same eﬃcacy.D) This experiment alone cannot give an idea about the biological variability.
32- A non-safe drug is characterized by one ofthe following:A) A ﬂat slope.B) A higher therapeutic index.C) A wide margin of safety.D) A small ratio between the therapeutic dose andthe toxic dose.
33- In the dose response curve; using logarithmof the dose affords the following advantagesexcept:A) The curve can display a narrower range ofdoses.B) The relationship is displayed as a straight line.C) Mathematical and statistical calculations areeasier.D) Calculation of error is easier.
34- The following factors or agents inhibit theliver microsomal enzyme system except:A) Phenytoin.B) Malnutrition.C) Irradiation.D) Hepatic disease.
35 - Ocular administration of homatropine produces mydriasis due to : A) Stimulation of cholinergic receptors in the circular muscle ﬁbers of the iris .B) Blockade of cholinergic receptors in the circular muscle of the iris . C) Paralysis of circular muscles of the iris . D) No action on the radial muscles of the iris .
36-Regarding Accommodation reﬂex all of thefollowing are true except:A) is produced by the action on the ciliary muscle.B) is abolished by the action of of muscarinicantagonists.C) is usually accompanied by mydriasis.D) is due to increase in lens convexity.
37-Two drops of a 1% solution ofphysostigmine were instilled in the right eye ofa rabbit. Into the left eye of the same rabbit:two drops of saline are instilled. The followingchange was observed:a) light reﬂex is abolished only on the right eye.b) pupil size of the right eye is much less of theleft eye.c) no change in the pupil size was observed ineither eye.d) pupil size was much less in the left eye.
38- A test drug was instilled in the rabbit eye.The pupil size is decreased and lightcongestion was observed in the eye bloodvessels and the drug produced eye lid twitchesthe drug most probably: a) cyclogel b) carbacol c) physostigmine d) atropine
39)You have based your answer in the lastquestion on that:a) all these drugs are cholinomimetics.b) the drug you selected acts on both muscarinicand nicotinic receptors.c) the drug you selected acts only on muscarinicreceptors.d) all these drugs act on muscarinic receptors.
40- Dr Ali instilled ephedrine & atropine intoright & left rabbit eyes respectively. By the endof experiment he forget in which eye instilledephedrine & atropine. He done test todiscriminate:a) the right eye is insensitive to light reﬂex.b) the left eye is insensitive to light reﬂex.c) the right eye is insensitive to touching by apieceof cotton.d) the left eye was more congested.
41- Active mydriasis is produced by the drugswhich:a) stimulate the dilator papillae.b) stimulate constrictor papillae.c) stimulate ciliary muscle.d) paralyze constrictor papillae.
42-In a rabbit: Pilocarpine was instilled intothe right eye and cocaine HCL was instilledinto the left eye. The following change wasobserved:A) Abolishment of the light reﬂex in the right eye.B) Elevation in intraocular pressure is observedin the right eye.C) Corneal reﬂex was intact in both eyes.D) Loss of corneal reﬂex in the left eye.
43- Two drops of 1% solution of physostigminewere instilled into the right eye of a rabbit.Into the left eye of the same rabbit;homatropine was administered. The followingchange was observed:A) Light reﬂex was abolished in both eyes.B) Light reﬂex was abolished in the left eye.C) No change in the pupil size was observed ineither eye.D) Pupil size was much less in the left eye.
44-In another rabbit: physostigmine wasinstilled into the left eye and phenylepherinewas instilled into the right eye. The followingchanges was noticed:A) Loss of light reﬂex in the right eye.B) Loss of light reﬂex in the left eye.C) Decrease in the pupil size of the left eye.D) Loss of corneal reﬂex in both eyes.
45-In another rabbit: physostigmine wasinstilled into the left eye and phenylepherinewas instilled into the right eye. The followingchanges was noticed:A) Loss of light reﬂex in the right eye.B) Loss of light reﬂex in the left eye.C) Decrease in the pupil size of the left eye.D) Loss of corneal reﬂex in both eyes.
46-In a third rabbit: in the right eyeepinepherine was administered while, in theleft eye two drops of saline (0.9% NaCL)solution were instilled. The following changeswas observed EXCEPT:A- Pupil size of the right eye was larger than thatof the left eye.B- Light reﬂex was not abolished in right eye.C- Light reﬂex was intact in left eye.D- Light reﬂex was abolished only in the right eye.
47-Beta adrenergic antagonist reduces the IOPby:a) increase drainage of aqueous humor.b) increase the rate of formation of aqueoushumor.c) decrease the rate of biosynthesis of aqueoushumor.d) both a&b.