DR.KANDEEL Exams End module Exam Bowman's Glands are present in lamina propria of: - 1 a. Intrapulmonary bronchus b. Olfactory area c. Trachea d. Bronchioles The last part that contains smooth muscle in respiratory system is - 2 a. Alveolus b.Respiratory bronchiole c. Terminal bronchiole d.Alveolar duct Which structure share in blood air barrier? - 3 a. Type II pneumocyte. b.Type I pneumocyte. c. Fused basement membrane of Type I pneumocyte & macrophage. d. Macrophages Which of the following is true about alveolar macrophage? - 4 a. Present in the inter-alveolar septum. b.Stained with supra-vital stain. c. Lymphocyte in origin. d.Contains apical microvilli The lining epithelium of trachea is: - 5 a. Pseudostratified ciliated columnar with goblet cells b.Simple ciliated columnar with Clara cells c. Stratified squamous d. Transitional Regarding the medium sized vein, the following is true: - 6 a. Has a thick wall and a narrow lumen. b.Has a clear internal elastic lamina c. Has a thick tunica media. d.Has wide tunica adventitia The tunica adventitia of blood vessels......... - 7 a. Prevents complete occlusion of the vessels b.Provides a smooth surface for blood flow c. Prevents overexpansion of blood vessels d. Regulates the blood flow by contraction and relaxation. Which one of the following statements about medium sized artery is true? - 8 a. There is no internal elastic lamina b. Smooth muscle fibers are found in its tunic media c. Its tunica adventitia is thicker than tunica media d. Vasa vasorum are present in its tunica intima. Longitudinal smooth muscle fibers are present in tunica adventitia of: - 9 a. Medium sized vein b.Inferior vena cava c. Aorta d. Small Arteries (Arterioles) One of the following data about vasa vasorum is true: - 10 a. Found in tunica adventitia of large arteries. b.Supply blood to tunica intima of aorta. c. Appear only in E/M picture. d. They are small lymphatic vessels. e following is true Concerning the nasopharyngeal tonsil, one of th - 11 a. Have deep invaginations called crypts b.Surrounded by a complete connective tissue capsule c. Covered by pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium with goblet cells. d. Two masses of lymphoid tissue embedded in mucous membrane of pharynx. In the lymph node, the following is true about medullary lymph sinuses: - 12 a. Present inbetween the lymphatic follicles. b.Send lymph to the cortical sinuses c. Present in the paracortex d. Lined by endothelial cells & macrophages. lymphocyte maturation is called: - Lymphatic organ responsible for T - 13 a. Lymph node b.Spleen c. Tonsil d. Thymus Billroth cords ........: - 14 a. Are present in lymph node b.Are primary lymph follicles c. Are secondary lymphatic follicles d.Contain WBCs & RBCS
DR.KANDEEL Exams In the spleen, white pulp: - 15 a. Is formed of cords and sinuses. b. lymphatic nodule with central arteriole c. Has large number of RBCs. d. Is formed of only 2 zones The lingual tonsils are covered by - 16 a. Simple squamous epithelium b. Stratified squamous epithelium c. Pseudo-stratified ciliated columnar epithelium with goblet cells d. Pseudo-stratified non-ciliated columnar epithelium with no goblet cells. dependent region of a lymphoid organ: - The following is known as a thymus - 17 a. Medullary cords of the lymph node b. Paracortical zone of the lymph node c. Crypts of the pharyngeal tonsils d. Red pulp of the spleen Karyorrhexis: - 18 a. Occurs in mitosis b. The nucleus become small and dark c. The nucleus dissolve and disappears d. Occurs in cell death Meiosis: - 19 a. Two successive divisions with intervening S-phase b. In 1"' division, each chromosome divides longitudinally at the centromere c. Daughter cells are four with diploid number of chromosomes d. Aberration in first meiotic division could lead to numerical aberration al microtubules of mitotic spindle are attached to the kinetochore in In mitosis, chromosom - 20the following stage: a. Prophase b. Metaphase c. Anaphase d. Telophase Necrosis is characterized by the following: - 21 a. Can be physiological or pathological b. Cells break into large vesicles c. Cells and organelles swell and burst d. Is active programmed process Sex chromatin (Barr body): - 22 a. Represent the inactive x chromosome in turner syndrome b. Represent the active x chromosome in turner syndrome c. Could be seen in a cell containing y chromosome d. Is the active extra x chromosome in Klinefelter syndrome In meiosis, crossing over occurs at the chiasmata in: - 23 a. Prophase I b. Metaphase II c. Anaphase II d. Telophase I Answers: D 13 B 1 D 14 D 2 B 15 B 3 B 16 A 4 B 17 A 5 D 18 D 6 D 19 C 7 B 20 B 8 C 21 B 9 C 22 A 10 A 23 C 11 D 12
DR.KANDEEL Exams Questions On Lymphatic Tissue EXAM.2021 * germinal center of secondary lymphatic nodules contain many: . The 1 a. Small B-lymphocytes b. Numerous T-lymphocytes c. Activated large B-lymphocytes d. Erythrocytes Choose the correct statement about the lymph node: . 2 a. Lymph circulates from medullary to cortical sinuses. b. Littoral cells line the lymph sinuses to phagocytose foreign bodies. c. Afferent lymph vessels enter lymph node through convex surface. d. Its parenchyma is organized into white and red pulps. . Concerning thymus gland, the nursing cells are: 3 a. T-Lymphocytes. b. Lymphoblasts in the outer cortex. c. Macrophages in cortex and medulla. d. Epithelial reticular cells in cortex and medulla. Thymus dependent zone of the spleen refers to: . 4 a. Marginal zone. b. Follicular zone. c. Peri-arteriolar lymphatic sheath. d. Germinal center. . Concerning the Billroth cords, the following is true: 5 a. Present in lymph node b. Are primary lymph follicle c. Are secondary lymph follicle d. Contain WBCs & RBCs about the palatine tonsil: . Choose the correct statement 6 a. Found under the mucous membrane of the nasopharynx. b. Covered with pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium. C. Consist of lymphatic nodules and diffuse lymphatic tissue. d. Surrounded with complete capsule. aryngeal tonsils are covered by The Ph . 7 a. Simple squamous epithelium b. Stratified squamous epithelium c. Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium with goblet cells d. Stratified non ciliated columnar epithelium without goblet cells *Answers: D 5 C 1 C 6 C 2 C 7 D 3 C 4
DR.KANDEEL Exams 2 . Lymphatic .EXAM 1)the largest lymphoid organ in the body is the : a)lymph node b)thymus gland c)spleen d)palatine tonsil 2)medulla of lymph node is characterized by all the following except : s corpuscles , a)it is lighter in staining than cortex b)it contains Hassall c)it is surrounded by cortex except at hilum d)it is composed of medullary cords & sinuses 3)the capsule of the lymph node is characterized by all the following except : a)formed mainly of collagenous and elastic fibers b)it contains striated muscles c)it is thickened at region of the hilum d)contains connective tissue cells mainly fibroblasts 4)T-lymphocytes become immune competent (mature )in the : a)medulla of lymph node b)cortex of lymph nodes c)cortex of thymus d)medulla of thymus 5)which of the following vessels is present in the paracortical region of lymph node ? a)post capillary venules b)efferent lymphatic vessels c)afferent lymphatic vessels d)penicillar arteriole 6)in the spleen: the periarterial lymphatic sheath a)is present in the splenic cord b)it contains mainly neutrophils c)it contains B-lymphocytes d)is present in the white pulp 7)the thymus dependent zone is present in the : a)medullary zone of lymph node b)marginal zone of the spleen c)paracortical area of lymph node d)Hassall corpuscles of thymus 8)in the thymus : a)there is a barrier separates the lymphocytes from antigens circulating in the blood b)hassal corpuscles are only present in the cortex c)at birth ,the size of the thymus is small and becomes large at puberty d)B-lymphocyte are the main cell in its medulla 9)in humoral immune response : a)RBCs increase in number b)T-lymphocytes form killer cells c)B-lymphocytes develop into plasma cell d)fibroblasts synthesize more collagen 10 )the ………………covers the lingual tonsil a)simple columnar epithelium b)stratified squamous non keratinized c)stratified squamous keratinized d)pseudo stratified columnar ciliated with goblet cells 11)adenoid is hypertrophy of : a)lingual tonsil b)pharyngeal tonsil c)palatine tonsil d)lymph node 12)which cells are responsible for secretion of thymosin hormone : a)macrophage b)epithelial reticular cells c)lymphocytes d)dendrite cells 13)all of the following about lymph nodes are true except : a)reticular fibers present in the stroma b)formed of cortical and medullary zone c)it is responsible for filtration of blood d)it has afferent and efferent lymphatic vessels 14)the following are antigen presenting cells except : a)B lymphocytes b)langerhans cell c)kupffer cells d)microglial cells
DR.KANDEEL Exams Answers: *EXAM.2 A 8 C 1 C 9 B 2 B 10 B 3 B 11 C 4 B 12 A 5 C 13 D 6 A 14 C 7 Problem solving Questions: 1. A 10 year old child had frequent acute tonsillitis & his mother was advised to consider tonsillectomy. Which of the following statements is correct about this case? a. A blood film is likely to show lymphocytosis. b. The surgeon will remove the lingual tonsils. c. The surgeon will remove the palatine tonsils. d. All lymphatic nodules are of the primary type. 2. A 7 year old child came to the pediatric clinic presenting with a typical picture of acute tonsillitis, choose the true statement related to this case: a. The regional lymph nodes are likely to be inflamed. b. Metastatic lymph nodes are likely seen. c. Blood film from this patient may present eosinophilia. d. Blood film from this patient may present basophilia. 3. A patient has an auto immune disease .it may be due to a defect in the lymphocytes produced in the: a. Lymph node. b. Spleen. c. Palatine tonsil. d. Thymus gland. 4. Regional enlargement of lymph nodes may be due to: a. Inflammation of part of body drained by lymph nodes. b. Spread of cancer via blood stream. c. Acute leukaemia. d. Chronic leukaemia Answers 4 3 2 1 A d A C
DR.KANDEEL Exams Questions on respiratory system 1 Exam 1 Goblet cells are found in the epithelium of a- Bronchiole b- Bronchus c- Palatine tonsil d- Alveolar duct 2 Surfactant is secreted by: a- Type I pneumocytes b- k cells of trachea c- Type II pncumocytes d- Goblet cell 3 Alveolar duct is lined by: a- Stratified squamous b- Simple squamous c- Pseudostratified columnar d- Simple columnar XXX 4 K cell in the respiratory system is: a- Surfactant secreting cell that lines alveoli b- Neuroendocrine cell that lines trachea c- Fibroblast in the interalveolar septum d- Clara cell that lines bronchiole 5 Type II pneumocytes are characterized by all the following EXCEPT: a- Secrete surfactant b- Have microvilli c- Squamous cells d- Few in number 6 Which one of the following belongs to the trachea? a- Hyaline cartilage in its wall b- Skeletal muscles in its submucosa c- A thick elastic lamina separates submucosa from adventitia d- Stratified columnar ciliated epithelium in its mucosa 7 All the following are characteristics of Clara cells EXCEPT a- They secrete surfactant-like material b- They can metabolize air-born toxins c- They can divide d- They line the bronchi 8 Bowman's glands are present in the lamina propria of: a- Bronchus mucosa b- Bronchiole mucosa c- Olfactory mucosa d- Trachea mucosa 9 Lamellar bodies are present in the cytoplasm of: a- Pneumocytes type II b- Pneumocytes type II c- Kulchitsky (K) cells d- Clara cells following EXCEPT: 10 Olfactory cells are characterized by all the a- They are bipolar cells b- They have long non-motile cilia c- They cannot regenerate d- Their apexes possess dilated areas I: 11 Pneumocytes type a- They are tall columnar cells b-They secrete surfactant c- They are simple squamous cells d- They contain lamellar bodies 12 Pleura: a- Serous membrane covering the lung b- It has mesothelial cells c- Formed of parietal & visceral layers d- All of the above 13 The basement membrane in the blood air barrier is formed of fused basal laminae of: a- Pneumocytes 1 & capillary endothelium b- Capillary endothelium & heart failure cells c- Pneumocytes I & pneumocytes II d- Pneumocytes I & dust cells 14 Pulmonary Surfactant: a- It consists primarily of polysaccharides b- It is stored as lamellar bodies in pneumocytes II c- It is phagocytosed by pneumocytes I d- It increases alveolar surface tension : 15 The anterior portion of the nasal cavity (vestibule) is lined with a- Transitional epithelium b- Simple columnar epithelium c- stratified squamous d- Stratified columnar epithelium
DR.KANDEEL Exams 16 The three shelves on the lateral wall of posterior portion of nasal cavity are called: a- Conchae b- Cristae c- Coaches d- Caves 17 Respiratory epithelium means: a- Pneumocytes I & pncumocytes II b- Pseudostratified columnar ciliated with goblet cells c- Stratified columnar epithelium d- Transitional epithelium 19 Olfactory cells of olfactory epithelium are characterized by: a- They have apical secretory granules b- They regenerate all other cell types c- They are bipolar nerve cells d- They do not extend to the surface 20 The larynx is lined with: a- Stratified squamous non-keralinized epithelium b- Pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium with goblet cells except vocal cords c- Stratified columnar non-cilialed epithelium d- Simple columnar ciliated epithelium without goblet cells 29 Which one of tracheal epithelial cells is able to divide and replace all other cell types? a- Short basal cell b- Brush cell c- Kulchitsky (K) cell d- Ciliated columnar cell 30 Which one of the following contains irregular cartilaginous plates in its wall? a- Trachea b- Intrapulmonary bronchus c- Extra pulmonary bronchus d- Terminal bronchiole 32 Clara cells are present in: a- Nasopharynx b- Paranasal sinuses c- Larynx d- Terminal bronchioles 33 Alveoli are: a- Present in the wall of respiratory bronchioles b- Separated from each other by septa c- Supported by reticular fibers d- All of the above 34 Which of the following is found in the respiratory part of the respiratory system? a- Pneumocytcs type I b- Bowman's glands c- Larynx d- Terminal bronchioles 35 Type I pneumocytes are characterized by all the following EXCEPT: a- Form tight junctions with neighboring cells b- Form part of the blood air barrier c- Cover 15% of the alveolar surface d- Not able to divide 36 Only one of the following does not belong to the olfactory epithelium: a- Olfactory cells have long motile cilia b- Sustentacular cells contact olfactory cells c- Basal cells rest on a basement membrane d- Bowman's glands secrete a serous product s not belong to the alveolar epithelium: e 37 Only one of the following do a- Type l and Type II pneumocytes are joined by tight junctions b-The epithelium rest on a well-developed basement membrane c- Ciliated cells are present within the alveolar epithelium d- Alveolar epithelial cells are closely associated with capillary endothelium
DR.KANDEEL Exams Answers: a 29 c 15 b 1 b 30 a 16 c 2 -- 31 b 17 b 3 d 32 --- 18 -- 4 d 33 c 19 c 5 a 34 b 20 a 6 c 35 -- 21 d 7 a 36 -- 22 c 8 c 37 -- 23 a 9 -- 24 c 10 -- 25 c 11 -- 26 d 12 -- 27 a 13 -- 28 b 14
DR.KANDEEL Exams *Questions On CVS .1 Exam Longitudinal smooth muscle fibers are present in the adventitia of: 1) a- Medium sized vein b- Aorta c- Inferior vena cava d- Basilar artery ) The vasa vasorum are: 2 a- Found in tunica media of small arteries b- Found in tunica adventitia of large arteries c- Found in tunica media of basilar arteries d- Found in tunica intima of large arteries ) The capillaries which are present in the nervous tissue are: 3 a- Non fenestrated with diaphragm b- Fenestrated with diaphragm c- Continuous d- Fenestrated without diaphragm m sized artery is true? ) Which one of the following statements about the mediu 4 a- Vasa vasorum are present in its intima b- Smooth muscle fibers in its media c- There is no internal elastic lamina d- Its adventitia is thicker than media ) Continuous capillaries are characterized by all the following EXCEPT: 5 a- Its endothelial cells contain pinocytic vesicles b- Its endothelial cells are joined by tight junctions c- Are present in kidney glomeruli d- They lack fenestrae ) Tunica adventitia of the blood vessels contains all the following EXCEPT: 6 a- Collagenous fibers b- Fibroblasts c- Elastic fibers d- Mucous glands are characterized by all the following EXCEPT: ) Blood sinusoids 7 a- Have continuous basement membrane b- Show wide intercellular clefts c- Have fenestrated endothelium d- Are wider than capillaries venous anastomoses are characterized by: - ) Arterio 8 a- Present in tip of fingers and toes b- Richly innervated by sympathetic system c- Regulate blood pressure d- All of the above ) Muscular arteries are characterized by all the following EXCEPT: 9 a- They have continuous endothelial epithelium b- Its epithelium rests on a thin continuous basement membrane c- Its tunica adventitia is thicker than tunica media d- They have internal and external elastic laminae ) Concerning large veins, which one of the following statements is not true? 10 a- Its adventitia may contain smooth muscles. B- They have well defined internal elastic lamina c- They have valves d- Its media contains elastic fibers Which of the following is NOT true regarding the aorta: - 11 a- Thick tunica intima. B- well prominent internal elastic lamina. c- Thick tunica media. D- Fenestrated elastic lamina in tunica media. : Concerning the medium sized veins, all of the following are true EXCEPT - 12 a- It has thin wall. B- It has wide lumen. c- Tunica intima has internal elastic lamina. D- Tunica media is thin with fewer elastic fibers. arterioles lacks: The wall of the - 13 a- External elastic lamina. B- Internal elastic lamina. c- Smooth muscle fibers. D- Elastic fibers. contains ...... The wall of inferior vena cava - 14 a- Tunica media is thick. B- Bundles of smooth muscle in tunica adventitia. c- Have internal elastic lamina. D- Have external elastic lamina.
DR.KANDEEL Exams Answers: D 8 C 1 C 9 B 2 B 10 C 3 B 11 B 4 C 12 C 5 A 13 D 6 B 14 A 7 2 Exam. 1. Tunica media of blood vessels continuous the following: a. Elastic fibers. b. Endothelium. c. Vasa vasorum. d. Internal elastic lamina. 2. Tunica adventitia of large arteries constitutes the following: a. Endothelium. b. Vasa vasora. c. Smooth muscle fibers. d. Internal elastic lamina. 3. Internal elastic lamina is well-developed in the tunica intima of: a. Muscular arteries. b. Veins. c. Capillaries. c. Lymphatic. 4. Vasa vasora are: a. Small arteries in tunica media. b. Blood vessels of the blood vessels. c. Present mainly in small veins. d. Nourishing the inner part of the wall of large vessels. 5. The function of the internal elastic lamina is to: a. Regulate blood flow by its contraction. b. Nourish the wall of blood vessels. c. Prevent complete occlusion of blood vessels. d. Differentiate tunica media from tunica adventitia. 6. In aorta, internal elastic lamina is unclear because: a. It is not present. b. Cannot be stained. c. Not differentiated from underlying elastic fibers. d. Very thin. 7. Tunica media of aorta is characterized by the following: a. Presence of smooth muscle fibers. b. Presence of collagen fibers type II. c. Absence of ground substance. d. Constitutes 30% of the wall of aorta. 8. Muscular arteries are related to: a. Large arteries. b. Small sized arteries. c. Medium sized arteries. d. Arterioles. ed of: form mainly 9. Tunica media of medium sized arteries is a. Elastic fibers. b. Smooth muscle fibers. c. Collagen fibers. d. Ground substance. 10. In medium sized arteries, internal elastic lamina is: a. Very thin. b. Very clear. c. Not clear. d. Not be stained. 11. Specialized types of medium sized artery include the following: a. Coronary artery. b. Vasa vasora. c. Muscular artery. d. Aorta. 12. The main feature of basilar artery is: a. Prominent external elastic lamina. b. Prominent internal elastic lamina. c. Prominent collagen fibers. d. Prominent vasa vasorum.
DR.KANDEEL Exams 13. The tunica intima of coronary artery contains: a. Mucoid connective tissue. b. Longitudinal smooth muscles. c. Elastic connective tissue. d. White fibrous connective tissue. 14. Regarding the blood vessels: a. Smooth muscle contraction in vein wall restricts venous return to heart. b. Smooth muscle in a medium sized artery regulate blood supply to target tissues. c. Tunica media is veins is typically wider than tunica media of arteries. d. External elastic lamina limits the tunica intima from the tunica media. 15. Regarding the blood vessels: a. Blood cells can freely pass the wall of continuous the capillary. b. Internal elastic lamina limits tunica adventitia from tunica media. c. External elastic lamina limits tunica intima from tunica media. d. Blood plasma can freely pass the wall of sinusoidal capillary. 16. The following is a difference between medium sized artery and vein: a. Tunica media of vein is thicker than tunica media of artery. b. Tunica adventitia is relatively thick in medium sized vein. c. Elastic lamina are only found in medium sized vein. d. Tunica intima is folded in medium sized vein. 17. The following is a difference between medium sized artery and vein: a. Tunica intima is thin in medium sized artery and not in same sized vein. b. Tunica media contain numerous elastic fibers in medium sized vein. c. Medium sized vein show collapsed lumen after death. d. Medium sized artery usually shows blood in its lumen after death. 18. Regarding metarteriole: a. Connect the arteriole with venule. b. At their initial segment, is surrounded by sphincter of elastic fibers. c. Lateral branches of capillary. d. Control blood flow to capillary. 19. Tunica media of blood capillaries is formed of: a. Pericytes. b. Smooth muscle fibers. c. Fibroblasts. d. Elastic fibers. 20. One of the following is a type of blood capillaries: a. Blood sinusoids. b. Coronary vessels. c. Basilar vessels. d. Lymphatic capillaries. 21. Blood sinusoids are common in the following sites: a. Brain. b. Stomach. c. Skin. d. Endocrine gland. 22. Somatic capillaries are characterized by the following: a. Have pores in their wall. b. The most common type. c. Has discontinuous basement membrane. d. Endothelium forms discontinuous layer. 23. Visceral capillaries are characterized by the following: a. Have no pores in their wall. b. Have discontinuous basement membrane. c. Have irregular diameter. d. Present in intestine. 24. Blood sinusoids are characterized by the following: a. Have no pores in their wall. b. Endothelial cells are separated by minimal intercellular spaces. c. Have continuous basement membrane. d. Macrophages are found among or outside their wall.
DR.KANDEEL Exams 25. Pericytes of blood capillaries perform the following function: a. Provide smooth surface for blood flow through capillaries. b. Regulate the blood flow through capillaries. c. Can differentiate into elastic fibers. d. Provide nutrition to capillaries wall. 26. Pericyte of blood capillary can differentiate into the following: a. Macrophage. b. Skeletal muscle cell. c. Mesothelial cell. d. Fibroblast. 27. Arterio-venous anastomoses are: a. Direct connection between medium sized arteries and veins. b. Direct connection between large elastic arteries and large veins. c. Direct connection between arterioles and venules. d. Are the blood capillaries. 28. Regarding arterio-venous anastomosis: a. If opened, blood passes through capillary bed. b. Dilate in hot weather. c. Constrict in cold weather. d. Regulate venous return. Answers MCQ A. b 22 d 15 C 8 a 1 d 23 b 16 B 9 b 2 d 24 c 17 B 10 a 3 b 25 d 18 A 11 b 4 d 26 a 19 B 12 c 5 c 27 a 20 B 13 c 6 d 28 d 21 B 14 a 7
DR.KANDEEL Exams Questions On Cytogenetics * EXAM.1 1)cells of a person with turner syndrome : a)46 autosomes +X chromosomes b)44 autosomes +XXY chromosomes c)44 autosomes +X chromosome d)45 autosome +X chromosome 2)cells of a person with klinefilter syndrome contain : a) 46 autosomes +X chromosomes b) 44 autosomes +X chromosome c) 44 autosomes+XXX chromosome d) 45 autosome +XY chromosome 3)mongolism (Down syndrome): a)trisomy 21 b)trisomy 13 c)trisomy 19 d)trisomy 18 4)each chromosome is formed of 2 chromatids attached by : a)centriole b)dynein arms c)mid body d)centromere 5)all the following are related to chromosomes except : a)chromatids b)histones c)nexin d)centromere 6)somatic cells contain : a)haploid number of chromosomes b)diploid number of chromosome c)23 chromsomes d)64 chromosomes 7) dark shaped structure presents in the centromere of chromosome is called : a)axoneme b)kinetochore c)dyncin arm d)radial spoke 8)study of number ,type and arrangement of chromosomes in an individual is called : a)karyotyping b)karyolysis c)apoptosis d)karyorrhexis 9)detachment and loss of a part of an arm of the called chromosome is called : a)iso chromosome b)inversion c)deletion d)translocation 10)tetraploidy means the cell contains : a)23 chromosomes b)69 chromosomes c)92 chromsomes d)46 chromosomes 11)In Philadelphia syndrome ,exchange of broken nieces between non-homologues chromosomes occurs between chromosomes number : a)21 and 23 b)9 and 22 c)6 and 13 d)9 and 21 12)Turner syndrome is : a)monosomy of X chromosome b)monosomy of autosome c)trisomy of autosome d)trisomy of X chromosome
DR.KANDEEL Exams 2 EXAM. 1. Duplication of the centrioles occurs at: a. G1 phase. b. S phase. c. G2 phase. d. G0 phase. 2. Mitosis is characterized by the following: a. Exchange of genes. b. Absence of crossing over. c. Daughter cells contain n chromosomes. d. Daughter cells are not identical to mother cells. 3. One of the following is a potentially renewable cell: a. Liver cell. b. Skin epidermal cell. C. Plasma cell. d. Macrophages. renewing cell: - non 4. One of the following is a a. Hepatocyte. b. Epidermal cell. c. Nerve cell. d. Cartilage cell. 5. One of the following has a pluripotential stem cell: a. Blood cells. b. Hepatocytes. c. Bone cells. d. Nerve cells. 6. Which description is correct for karyorrhexis? a. The nuclei become small and darkly stained. b. The nuclei and chromatin are swollen C. Dissolution and disappearance of nuclei. d. The nuclei and chromatin are fragmented 7. Colchicine is a chemical that stops chromatids from separating during mitosis at: a. Prophase. b. Anaphase. C. Metaphase. d. Telophase. 8. In karyotyping the chromosomes are obtained in: a. Prophase. b. Anaphase. c. Metaphase. d. Interphase. 9. Tubulin is synthesized in: a. S phase. b. G2 phase. c. G1 phase. d. prophase 10. One of the following is a balanced aberration: a. Reciprocal translocation. b. Ring chromosome. c. Terminal deletion. d. Isochromosome. 11. Which of the following is true for Barr body? a. Lies on the inner aspect of the nuclear envelope in all buccal epithelial cells. b. It appears as a drum stick like mass in 3-5% of female neutrophils. c. The number of Barr bodies equals to the number of X-chromosomes in the nucleus. d. Patient with Turner syndrome has one Barr body in her cells. 12. One of the following is a numerical aberration in sex chromosomes: a. Down's syndrome. b. Turner's syndrome. C. Isochromosome. d. Translocation. Philadelphia chromosome: 13. a. Translocation between chromosomes b. Duplication of chromosome c. Terminal deletion of chromosome d. Inversion affecting chromosome 14. Down syndrome: a. caused by centric fusion between 21 &14. b. May be due to multiple X syndrome. C. May be caused by chromosome 21 monosomy d. May be due to 47 chromosomes (XXY). include: 15. Structural aberrations a. Aneuploidy. b. Deletion.. c. Turner's syndrome. d . Klinefelter's syndrome. 16. Trisomy of chromosome X is: a. Turner's syndrome. b. Klinefelter's syndrome. c. Down's syndrome. d. Multiple X syndrome.
DR.KANDEEL Exams B) Problem solving: 1. mentally retarded female patient with short stature, primary amenorrhea and Her karyotype would be , underdeveloped secondary sex organs was asked perform karyotyping a. 47, XXY b. 45, XO c. 47, XY trisomy 21 d. 47. XXX like features has performed - 2. A Child with mental retardation, hypotonia and mongol omosomes. One of the following could be seen in karyotyping test. He was found to have 46 chrhis karyotype: a. 46, Robertsonian translocation (21 & 14) b. 46, Philadelphia chromosome c. 46, duplication of chromosome 14 d. 46, deletion of chromosome 21 3. A swab from the buccal mucosa of a newly born infant showed more than one Barr bodies in the nuclei of nearly all epithelial cells. This condition may be diagnosed as: a. Multiple X syndrome b. Klinefelter syndrome c. Normal female d. Turner syndrome 4. A male child at puberty is presented with mental retardation, tall stature, small testis and separated nipples. This condition could be due to: widely a. Trisomy of chromosome 21. b. Loss of autosome during mitosis. c. Loss of Y chromosome during meiosis. d. Non disjunction of the X chromosomes. malities, small 5. A child presented with mental retardation, muscular hypotonia, cardiac abnor genital organs. You have to think about: a. Klinefelter's syndrome. b. Down syndrome. c. Monosomy of chromosome 21. d. Turner syndrome. If a parent is a carrier of a chromosome 21 translocation, he might have a child with: 6. a. Turner's syndrome. b. Down syndrome. c. Klinefelter's syndrome. d. Chronic myeloid leukaemia. 7. a female patient presented with mental retardation, edema of upper and lower limbs, short primary amenorrhea. stature and a. Her karyotype is 47 XO. B. She has two X chromosomes. c. Her condition is due to trisomy of sex chromosome. d. Her karyotype is 45 XO. as having chronic myeloid leukemia. His condition might be due to: 8. A patient was diagnosed a. Reciprocal translocation between chromosome 22 and b. Deletion of short arm of chromosome c. Deletion of short arm of chromosome d. Centric fusion of chromosomes 14 and 21. Answers: Choose: a 13 c 7 b 1 a 14 c 8 b 2 b 15 b 9 a 3 d 16 a 10 c 4 b 11 a 5 b 12 d 6 Problem solving: 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a d b b d a a b
DR.KANDEEL MATCHING Cytogenetic Match Column (A) with Column (B). Table I Column (B) Column (A) a. (45, XO) b. (47, trisomy 21) c. karyotype (46,47,45) d. Extra genes on chromosome e. Two copies of same genes on same chromosome f. unequal chromosomes g. (47, XXY) 1. Down's syndrome 2. Klinefelter's syndrome 3. Turner's syndrome 4. Duplication 5. Mosaic Table II Column (B) Column (A) a. Specialized working cells b. Duplication of the centrioles c. Synthesis of tubulin d. Disappearance of nucleoli e. Cleavage furrow f. Split of the chromatids g. Chromosomes arranged in equatorial plane 1. Prophase 2. Metaphase 3. Anaphase 4. Telophase 5. G1 phase Answers: Table I 5 4 3 2 1 c e a g b Table II 5 4 3 2 1 a e f g d
DR.KANDEEL MATCHING CVS Table I Column (B) Column (A) a. Pericyte in T.media b. Connects between arteriole & capillary c. Fenestrated elastic membrane d. Longitudinal smooth muscle in T. intima e. Clear internal elastic lamina f. Adipose connective tissue g. Clear external elastic lamina 1. Basilar artery 2. Coronary artery 3. Metarteriole 4. Aorta 5. Capillary Table II Column (B) Column (A) a. Smooth surface b. Nourish the blood vessels c. Prevent occlusion of blood vessels d. Regulate blood supply to target tissues e. Connect arterioles to venules f. Support the endothelium g. Connect arteriole with capillaries 1. Elastic lamina 2. Smooth muscle fibers 3. Vasa vasorum 4. Subendothelium C.T 5. Endothelium Table III Column (B) Column (A) a. Has pores with basement membrane b. Well-developed elastic lamina C. The most common type d. Fenestrated elastic membrane e. Has pores & no basement membrane f. Connect arteriole with capillaries g. Connect arteriole with venule 1. Continuous capillaries 2. Fenestrated capillaries 3. Sinusoidal capillaries 4. Arteriovenous shunt 5. Metarteriole Table IV Column (B) Column (A) a. Discontinuous basement membrane b. Prominent internal elastic lamina c. Non-clear internal elastic lamina d. Have pores covered by diaphragms e. Have pores & continuous basement membrane f. Wide tunica adventitia g. Connect between arteriole & venule 1. Medium sized arteries 2. Visceral capillaries 3. Sinusoidal capillaries 4. Medium sized veins 5. Large elastic arteries
DR.KANDEEL MATCHING Table V Column (B) Column (A) a. Irregular blood channels b. Elastic lamina c. Lined by simple cubical epithelium d. Have sphincter e. Tunica adventitia is adipose C.T. f. Wide tunica adventitia g. Connect between arteriole & venule 1. Medium sized Artery 2. Metarteriole 3. Sinusoidal capillaries 4. Veins 5. Arteriovenous shunts Answers: Table I 5 4 3 2 1 a c b d E Table II 5 4 3 2 1 a f b d C Table III 5 4 3 2 1 f g e a C Table IV 5 4 3 2 1 c f a d B Table V 5 4 3 2 1 g f a d B
DR.KANDEEL MATCHING Respiratory Table I Column (B) Column (A) a- Warming of inspired air b- Destruction of inhaled antigens c- Secrete solvent for odorous gases d- Extensibilty e- Perception of olfactory impulses f- Structural support g. Increase force of airflow 1. Elastic fibers 2. Cartilage rings 3- Blood vessels 4. Lymphoid nodules 5- Bowman's glands Table II Column (B) Column (A) a. Arise mainly from monocytes escaping from blood capillaries b. Tall columnar cells containing yellow pigments. C. Simple squamous cells providing a very thin membrane for gaseous exchange d. Have apical microvilli and basal afferent nerve endings e. Protect against development of emphysema. f. Secrete pulmonary surfactant g. Have numerous granules with dense cores 1. Type I pneumocytes 2. Type II pneumocytes 3. Clara cells 4. Alveolar phagocytes 5. Sustentacular cells of olfactory epithelium. Table III Column (B) Column (A) a. Region of transition between conducting & respiratory parts b. Expanded irregular spaces at distal ends of alveolar ducts c. Have the same structure as trachea d. Lined with simple cuboidal ciliated epithelium & Clara cells e. First part of respiratory tract without cilia. f. Multiple irregular plates of hyaline cartilage in their adventitia g. Lined with simple squamous epithelium with Clara cells. 1. Extrapulmonary bronchi 2. Alveolar ducts 3. Terminal bronchioles 4. Intrapulmonary bronchi 5. Respiratory bronchioles Answers Table I 5 4 3 2 1 c b a f D Table II 5 4 3 2 1 b a e f c Table III 5 4 3 2 1 a f d e c
DR.KANDEEL MATCHING Lymphatic Table I Column (B) Column (A) a. Controls the multiplication of helper and suppressor T-cells. b. T-cells mature and acquire markers. c. Enhances suppressor cells d. Isolation of developing thymocytes from contact with antigens e. Eliminates non-functioning lymphocytes f. Stimulates the production of T-cytotoxic cells g. Involution of the thymus 1. Thymulin 2. Thymopietin 3. Thymic selection 4. Thymic education 5. Thymic humoral factor Table II Column (B) Column (A) a. Present between white pulps & blood sinusoids and infiltrated with blood cells & lymphoid cells b. Site of T lymphocyte maturation & differentiation c. Receives lymph from afferent lymphatics d. Separate lymphatic follicles from trabeculae e. Branched masses of B lymphocytes & plasma cells extending from the paracortex f. Entry point for T lymphocytes into lymph node g. Lined with fenestrated elongated endothelial cells 1. Subcapsular sinus 2. High endothelial venules 3. Cords of Billroth 4. Medullary cords 5. Splenic sinusoids Exam Questions Table I Column (B) Column (A) a. Network of reticular cells & fibers infiltrated with blood cells & lymphoid cells b. Site of T lymphocyte maturation & differentiation venules c. Receives lymph from afferent lymphatics d. Separate lymphatic follicles from trabeculae e. Branched masses of B lymphocytes & plasma cells extending from the paracortex f. Lined with fenestrated elongated endothelial cells 1. Subcapsular sinus ( C) 2. Trabecular sinus (d) 3. Cords of Billroth (a) 4. Medullary cords (e) 5. Splenic sinusoids (f)
DR.KANDEEL MATCHING Table II Column (B) Column (A) a. Reticuloendothelial system b. Filtration of lymph c. Pseudostratified columnar epithelium d. Lymphatic capillaries e. Stratified squamous epithelium f. Endocrine function g. Filtration of blood 1. Lymph node (b) 2. Spleen (g) 3. Palatine tonsil (e) 4. Thymus (f) 5. Pharyngeal tonsil (c) Table III Column (B) Column (A) a. Contain central arteriole b. PALS C. Lymphocytes mixed with saliva d. Lined by endothelium e. Thymus dependent zone f. Medulla of thymus g. Activated B-lymphocytes & plasmablasts 1. Germinal center (g) 2. Hassall's corpuscles (f) 3. Paracortex (e) 4. White pulp (a) 5. Lymph sinus (d)