Contrast the OSI and TCP/IP models, and their respective layers. In the OSI model,Based on a categorization of network functions into seven service layers, the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model provides a standardised method for designing these functions.Most manufacturers initially pledged support for the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI), but the OSI's lack of clarity and the persistence of proprietary standards eventually made that impossible. What was originally destined to become the worldwide communications standard is now utilised as a teaching model for all other protocols save the OSI-compliant X.400 and X.500 e-mail and directory standards, which are still extensively used.All communications systems make use of at least one of the OSI model's layers, and many use all seven.A breakdown of the OSI model's layers and the functions they provide.The 7th Application Layer provides network connectivity to end-user programmes. File transfer programmes, database browsers, and email clients are all examples of user-facing programmes, and they rely on the services represented by this layer.The presentation layer, which is often a component of an operating system, is responsible for transcoding information between various presentation formats. Data encryption and text compression are two services provided by the presentation layer.SESSION initiates, controls, and ends communications between computers. Name recognition and a secondary picture layer are both functions it fulfils. Error-handling and the other 5 features, including security, are required for two apps to talk to each other via a network.TRANSPORTLayer 4This layer is responsible for end-to-end error recovery and flow management and offers transparent movement of data between end systems or hosts. It guarantees flawless information exchange.puts data packets in order and asks for retransmission of those that didn't make it. It also reformats communications so they may be sent more quickly and efficiently over the network.Layer 3 NetworkingCreates, manages, and destroys connections in a network. Transports data packets from one network node to another. Provides a way to convert virtual locations to real ones.LINKlayer 2 DATAFrame relay sends data between computers on the same network segment. Protects the layer-1-established physical connection. Data frames, including the appropriate flow management and error handling at the frame set, are recognised according to predetermined standards.The Media Access Control (MAC) layer and the Logical Link Control (LLC) layer are two sublayers of the data link layer. A computer's ability to access and send data over a network is governed by the MAC layer. Frame synchronisation, data flow, and error checking are all managed by the LLC layer.First Physcial LayerAll electrical and physical requirements for a device are specified at the
Physical layer. This entails the pinout, voltage, and cable requirements. Physical-layer devices include things like hubs, repeaters, and network adapters.Cables and plugs are defined here. sends information through a physical medium.Use of an e-mail sent from the left-hand computer to illustrate the OSI Layers in action.The data starts at the application layer of the sending computer and works its way down through the layers until it reaches the physical layer, where it is written to the network cables and sent to the physical layer of the receiving background imagecomputer.John's e-mail message:At 1:30, I'll be at Carl's.JohnJohn's e-mail received and readAt 1:30, I'll be at Carl's.JohnFind out who you're emailing and who you're trying to reach out to.Seventh layer of programme determined sender and recipient; located email client.Put information into ASCII format using the Xcoding key.Sixth Presentation Layer X-Decoded Data, ASCII CharactersX-protocol session initiation and shutdownLayer 5 SESSION initiated the session using the X protocol and closed it when it was done.Verify that your data is still in tact.DATA TRANSPORTLAYER 4 Verify that all data has arrived safely.Record the number of steps taken; reveal the shortest routeStep One: Visit the Website at 255.65.0.123.Network Layer 3: Record No. of Hops; Activate Shortest Path Initial Step; Visited the Background Image at IP Address 255.65.0.123Is the preliminary link established? Fill frames with data in X's preferred formatSetup of the underlying Layer 2 data link. Information decoded in-frame per X standard.Transmit as an electrical signal at X voltage and XMbps along the network connection.Receive electrical signal through network cable at X voltage and XMbps in PHYSICALlayer 1.The TCP/IP model is different from the OSI model. TCP/IP has just four layers, but the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model has seven.Indicators of OSI LayersThe TCP/IP Protocol Stackthe 7th layer of the applicationLayer 6: Presentation Layer 4: Application Layer 5: Session Layer 4: Transportation Layer 3: Transport LayerLayer 3 Internet Protocol (IP) NetworkingLayer 2 DATA LINK backdropFirst Physcial LayerLayer 1: Network InterfaceInterface to the NetworkThe network interface layer defines how data should be sent across the network."Internet Layer"Between the underlying Network Access Layer and higher-level Transport Layer is the Internet layer.Sending data packets over numerous networks is the job of the Internet layer. In order to do any sort of internetworking, data must be sent from one network to another. The term "routing" describes this action.Layer of TransportUnless another protocol layer is responsible for delivery, the transport layer is responsible for ensuring that its contents (passengers/goods) arrive at their destination in one piece. A simple data channel is
established at this layer for usage by applications to communicate about their respective tasks.Layer 7 is the Application Layer (also known as the Link Layer, Internet Layer, Transport Layer, and Layer 7).The TCP/IP paradigm only has one distinct tier—the application layer—in contrast to the OSI model's three top layers—the presentation layer, the session layer, and the transport layer. The application layer describes how host programmes interact with the services provided by the transport layer.