IGCSE History: Other Peace Treaties In General: ● All treaties contained the League Covenant. ● All treaties ordered the initial payment of reparations ● All treaties ordered land loss ● All treaties demanded disarmament ○ Keeping with Wilson’s 14 points to ensure peace, but also asa punishment ○ All were discussed in part during the Paris PeaceConferences of 1918 ○ All took into account the idea of self-determination ○ However, many disagreed with this and felt they had not beengiven this right Austria: Treaty of Saint-Germain (September 1919) ● Saint-Germain is in France, just outside Paris. ● Territorial Loss: ○ South Tyrol and Istria were lost to Italy, and large areas ofland were given to Poland, Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia. ■ New countries created (caused resentment) ○ Some of Austria’s richest lands given to Czechoslovakia; 3million German speakerssituated to Czechoslovakia ■ One of the reasons behind the Czechoslovakian Crisisand Munich Conference of 1938 over the Sudetenland ○ Austria became a small mountainous country of 6.5 millionpeople most of whom were gathered in Vienna. ● Disarmament: ○ Austrian army limited to 30 000 men. ● Austria could not seek Anschluss (reuniﬁcation) with Germany. ○ Purpose: to slow/prevent German Recovery ○ Part of the ToV with Germany too
○ In reality: made Germany more furious – March 1938,German troops marched into Austria, arrested thousands,held a rigged plebiscite, and made Austria part of Germanyagain. ● Reparations ordered by Austria ﬁled for bankruptcy before theamount was determined Bulgaria: Treaty of Neuilly (27th November 1919): ● Signed in Neuilly, Sur-Sein, France. ● Bulgaria was forced to recognize the kingdom of Serbs, Croatians,and Slovenes. ○ Considered very harsh ○ Territorial Loss: ■ Land lost to Greece, Yugoslavia and Romania ■ Bulgaria lost access to the Aegean Sea through loss ofland to Greece ■ Western Thrace was given over to the Allies. ■ Disarmament: ■ Bulgarian army restricted to 20 000 men. ■ Considered too harsh. ■ Reparations: Bulgaria was to pay £100million worth of reparations. ○ An area of Southern Dobruja was returned to Bulgaria after ithad been captured in the war. Hungary: Treaty of Trianon (March 1920): ● Territorial Loss: ○ 2/3 of Hungary was to be given to Czechoslovakia,Yugoslavia and Romania. ■ Created new countries (caused resentment) ● 64% of their population had been relocated. ● This caused a drop in population from 18 million to 7 million.
● Argued that they could not self-determinate ● Disarmament: ○ The Hungarian army was limited to 35 000 men. ○ Unrest as there were multiple communities trying to coexistwithin Hungary. Turkey: Treaty of Sèvres (10th August, 1920): ● Signed by the Ottoman family with the UK, Italy, and Japan. ● The severity and harshness of this equaled the Treaty of Versailles ● Territorial Loss: ○ They lost all their land in Europe to Greece. ○ Parts of Turkey became mandates of the League: Francecontrolling Syria; Britain controlling Palestine, Iraq, andJordan. ■ Middle Eastern countries displeased about this; wantedto be independent; roots of Middle Eastern Conﬂictover Palestine ■ Disarmament: ■ Army reduced to 50,000 men. ■ Limitations to navy ■ Airforce banned ■ Reparations: ■ They were forced to pay reparations. ■ Allies in charge of their economy Turkey: Treaty of Lausanne (1923): ● Treaty of Sèvres revised and made less harsh ○ Germans were annoyed at this, felt it was unfair and that theToV should’ve been revised too. ○ Increased German resentment of the ToV ○ Many Turks had been outraged at Treaty of Sèvres overthrewthe Ottoman family in 1921. ○ General Atatürk used military force to overcome the Treaty ofSèvres.
○ Revisions: ■ Turkey regained much of its land lost to Greece ■ No Reparations Overall Results ● All defeated countries lost land ● All defeated countries had to disarm ● The treaties of Versailles, St. Germain and Trianon wereconsidered the harshest, as they were the allies’ key opponents inthe War ○ Germany, Austria and Hungary lost valuable industrial land,thus impacting their economy and hindering recovery ○ New countries were created because of the treaties, but weresocially divided, because they were now governing people ofmany nationalities. ■ People complained of being unable to self-determinate ■ EG: Czechoslovakia in particular had 2 millionGermans, Slovaks, Hungarians, Poles, and Ukrainians. Questions to consider: ● A just peace is a positive, fair, and unbiased settlement whichtakes into account the actions of the victors in the war as well asthose of the losers. Such a peace was desired chieﬂy by Wilson butalso by Lloyd George during the peace conferences leading up tothe ToV. ● Was a just peace achieved? Could these settlements be consideredunbiased? ● A harsh peace is a punitive settlement designed to beneﬁt thevictors. Such a peace was desired by Clemenceau. ● How did Clemenceau’s aims affect the treaties? What were theeffects?
● These peace treaties were a mix between Wilson’s idealist 14points and Clemenceau’s desire to punish their opponents. ● Could these treaties be considered a faulty compromise thatbeneﬁted neither party?