First question, what is the medical term for difficulty breathing? Medical terminology comes up all the time on these certification tests, and this could be either medical terminology that you need to know or common accepted abbreviations. For this one about difficulty breathing, is it A) apnea, B) birdipnia, C) dyspnea, or D) hyperpnia? The answer is C) dyspnea. Let's quickly review the incorrect answers. Apnea is the temporary cessation of breathing. Whenever you see the prefix "a" before a letter, that often means without or not. For example, the term "avascular" means without vascular. Some other examples are "asymptomatic," which means without symptoms, and "asepsis," which means getting rid of sepsis or bacteria. Likewise, "apnea" means without breathing or cessation of breathing. Moving on to B) birdipnia, "brady" means slow. For example, "bradycardia" means slow heart rate. Likewise, "bradynea" means slow breathing. Looking at D) hyperpnia, "hyper" means above what is expected. For example, "hyperglycemia" is elevated blood sugar. So, "hyperpnia" means increased depth and rate of breathing. Finally, dyspnea is difficulty breathing. Maybe you've heard of the condition "dyslexia," where someone has difficulty reading. Again, the prefix "dys" means difficulty, so "dyspnea" means difficulty breathing. Let's look at this question: A medical assistant is performing a blood draw on a patient. The patient reports sweating, dizziness, and the patient's pulse is measured at 54 beats per minute. Which of the following conditions is the patient most likely experiencing? A) anemia, B) heart attack, C) syncope, or D) hypoglycemia? The answer is C) syncope. Syncope is also known as fainting, which is a temporary loss of consciousness. Symptoms of syncope include lightheadedness, dizziness, sweating, and a weak or rapid pulse. A normal pulse is between 60 to 100 beats per minute, and this patient's pulse is less than 54. Syncope isrelatively common in patients undergoing a blood draw because it can spook the patient and cause them to faint, which is the body's protective response to protect the brain. When a patientgoes into syncope, they are often placed in the Trendelenburg position or have their feet elevated to help increase blood and oxygen flow to the brain. Now that we know syncope is the answer, let's look at the incorrect answer choices. Anemia is when there is a lowered red blood cell count. Even though the patient is having a blood draw performed, the amount of blood being withdrawn is very minimal and not likely to cause anemia. Heart attacks can happen, and while sweating, dizziness, and a weak or rapid pulse are symptoms of a heart attack, it is less likely in this case, as a blood draw is not likely to cause a heart attack. Hypoglycemia is also unlikely in this case, as the question did not provide any clues about the patient's diabetic status or other factors that could lead to low blood sugar. So, in this case, the patient is most likely experiencing syncope. Next question: Which of the following refers to the process of destroying all forms of microbial life? A) disinfection, B) sanitization, C) sterilization, or D) ultrasonic bathing? The answer is C) sterilization.
Disinfection is the process of reducing the number of microorganisms but not killing all of them. Sanitization is the initial cleaning of an object or surface prior to disinfection or sterilization. Ultrasonic bathing is a form of sanitization, using vibrations to clean instruments before further processing. Sterilization, on the other hand, is the process of destroying all forms of microbial life, including spores. Last question: Which of the following describes the effect of epinephrine when used with a local anesthetic? A) vasoconstrictor, B) stimulant, C) muscle relaxant, or D) pain relief? The answer is A) vasoconstrictor. Epinephrine, when used with a local anesthetic, acts as a vasoconstrictor, meaning it constricts blood vessels. This helps to reduce bleeding at the site of administration and prolong the effectsof the anesthetic.