MEMORY PROCESSES IN MOTOR LEARNING I. The Memory Process Phases 1. Encoding Definition: The initial phase of information uptake. Process: Information received and stored by sensory modalities. Example: Watching the starting five in basketball on TV. Duration: Lasts only as long as the stimulus is presented. Outcome: Perception and attention affect whether information is processed further. 2. Retention Definition: The phase of retaining information after presentation. Process: Information is maintained in working memory. Methods: Repetition (subvocal or loud speech in the phonological loop). Requirements: Attention, concentration, and protection from interference. Interactions: Concurrently initiates the consolidation process. 3. Consolidation Definition: The process of transferring information into long-term memory. Process: New information integrated into existing knowledge. Duration: Hours, days, or even weeks. Vulnerability: Susceptible to disruption and interference. Building Blocks: Forms the foundation for future retrieval. 4. Retrieval Definition: The phase of making information available. Process: Information retrieved from long-term memory. Usage: Transferred to working memory for further application. Example: Informing someone about the starting five in basketball. 5. Forgetting
Definition: The loss or temporary inaccessibility of information. Causes: Decay of memory traces, interference effects, emotional suppression. Example: Not remembering the starting five of a basketball team. Complexity: May result from a combination of factors. II. Motor Skill Representation in Memory 1. Representation of Object and Event Concepts Elaborate models for the representation of object and event concepts in long-termmemory. Used for cognitive processes such as speaking and thinking. 2. Representation of Motor Skills Less understood but crucial for understanding skill execution. Cognitive perspective complements the movement-related perspective. Reveals cognitive causes of movement problems. Important in mental training and imagery techniques. III. Key Takeaways Memory processes involve encoding, retention, consolidation, retrieval, andforgetting. These phases interact and determine the storage and retrieval of information. Understanding movement representations enhances problem-solving in motorlearning. Cognitive representations are essential in mental training and imagerytechniques.