LONG-TERM MEMORY AND MEMORY PROCESSES I. Understanding Long-Term Memory 1. Long-Term Memory Overview Long-term memory stores information permanently. Information based on experiences, facts, language, or insights. Primary function: provides information for decision making, behavioral control,and evaluation. 2. Types of Long-Term Memory Declarative Memory (Explicit Memory): Accessible consciously. Can be verbalized or visualized. Subtypes: Episodic (context-specific), Semantic (general worldknowledge), and Autobiographic (personal experiences). Non-Declarative Memory (Implicit Memory): Independent of conscious access. Controls behavior unconsciously. Includes habituation, sensitization, classical conditioning, perceptualrepresentation, and procedural memory. II. Memory Processes 1. Procedural Approach to Memory Focuses on individual memory processes. Five phases: Encoding, Retention, Consolidation, Recall, and Forgetting. Three key aspects in information processing: hierarchy, modality-specificity, andcascading. 2. Memory Process Phases Encoding: Initial input of information. Retention: Holding and storing information over time.
Consolidation: The process of making a memory stable and resistant to interference. Recall: Retrieving stored information. Forgetting: Loss of stored information over time. III. Key Takeaways Long-term memory is a permanent storage system for various types ofinformation. Declarative memory allows conscious access, while non-declarative memorycontrols behavior unconsciously. Memory processes involve encoding, retention, consolidation, recall, andforgetting. Information processing occurs hierarchically, is modality-specific initially, and iscascaded across processes.