THE ROLE OF FEEDBACK IN MOTOR LEARNING I. Introduction Feedback plays a crucial role in motor learning. Two types of feedback: Intrinsic (internal) and Extrinsic (external). Intrinsic feedback, like kinesthetic or tactile sensory feedback, is often imprecise in the early stages of learning. Extrinsic feedback, from sources like coaches or technical mediums, can help reduce information deficits and aid in solving movement tasks. II. The Guidance Hypothesis The "guidance hypothesis" posits that extrinsic feedback supports learnersin successfully completing tasks. However, excessive reliance on extrinsic feedback can lead to neglecting intrinsic information. This dependency on external guidance can hinder the development of errordetection mechanisms, resulting in reduced performance when extrinsic feedback is unavailable. III. Effective Feedback Delay An optimal feedback delay of about 5–30 seconds is recommended. Immediate feedback can prevent the processing of intrinsic feedback. Longer delays, exceeding 30 seconds, may lead to the fading of intrinsic feedback from short-term memory, making it difficult to compare with extrinsic information. IV. Feedback Valence Extrinsic feedback can have positive or negative valence. Valence is influenced by the learner's aspirations and the type of feedback. Positive valence feedback is associated with reinforcement learning, while negative valence feedback increases attention-dependent processes to reduce errors. Cognitive involvement triggered by negative valence feedback may limit motor automatization.
V. Case Study: "Less Is More!" Experimental studies show that high availability of extrinsic feedback positively influences acquisition performance. However, retention performance benefits from reduced feedback frequency. Frequent error feedback can limit motor automatization and the development of error detection mechanisms. Key Takeaways Feedback is crucial in motor learning, but an excessive reliance on externalguidance can hinder skill development. An optimal feedback delay is essential to balance intrinsic and extrinsic feedback. Feedback valence, whether positive or negative, influences learning and motor automatization. Balancing feedback frequency is critical for effective motor learning, with reduced frequency promoting error detection mechanisms. Cognitive involvement induced by negative valence feedback can limit motor automatization.