CHAPTER 3: LEARNING AND MEMORY IN SPORTS Topic 3.2: Types of Learning in Sports Subtopic 3.2.1: Associative Learning and Instrumental Learning 220.127.116.11: The Mechanics of Instrumental Learning (Operant Conditioning) Understanding Instrumental Learning Instrumental learning, also known as operant conditioning, builds upon Thorndike's associative learning concept. Thorndike's Law of Effect According to the "law of effect," S-R (Stimulus-Response) connections are strengthened when accompanied by positive consequences. Thorndike's Cat Experiments Thorndike observed cats learning to escape from a cage through trial and error, reinforcing S-R connections with food rewards. B.F. Skinner's Skinner Box B.F. Skinner introduced a paradigm shift by associating animal behavior with rewards (positive stimulus) or punishments (negative stimulus) in the Skinner box. Positive Reinforcement Positive reinforcement occurs when behavior is rewarded with a positive stimulus,leading to increased occurrence of that behavior (e.g., lever presses rewarded with food). Punishment Behavior followed by punishment (e.g., electric current) decreases the likelihood of that behavior in the future. Negative Reinforcement Removing a negative stimulus through behavior (e.g., switching off electric current) increases the probability of that behavior. Instrumental Learning Learning in instrumental conditioning involves acquiring knowledge about which operant behaviors result in desired or undesired consequences in the environment.
18.104.22.168: Learning Action-Effect Relations Expanding on Thorndike and Skinner's Ideas Joachim Hoffmann introduced the "anticipatory behavioral control (ABC)" framework, suggesting that learning relies on complex action-effect associations. Primary Formation of Action-Effect Associations The strength of association between voluntary actions (Avolunt) and anticipated effects (Eant) determines behavior selection in a given situation (S) to achieve intended events in the environment (Ereal). Secondary Contextualization of Action-Effect Associations Secondary learning links A-E connections with situational conditions under whichactions are successful. Application in Sports In team handball, for instance, the counterattack can be initiated swiftly after a successful goalkeeper save (triggering stimulus) to score a goal (anticipated effect) when the behavioral routine has been learned in training. Ideomotor Approaches These approaches explain human behavior by selecting complex actions based on intended goal states, emphasizing the importance of action-effect relations. Anticipative Behavioral Control Hoffmann's anticipative behavioral control framework is linked to flow experiencesin sports.