THE DISPOSITION VERSUS CONTEXT ISSUE I. Virtue as a Stable Disposition Virtue seen as a relatively stable, unitary composite. Personality traits show longitudinal continuity. Big Five traits like conscientiousness and agreeableness have moralimplications. Important for job performance, especially in weak situations. II. The Role of Context Intraindividual variation also observed. Attributed to competing motives and contextual influences. Led to emphasis on situationism. Skepticism about virtue consistency. Interactionist perspective accepted - both disposition and situation important. Virtue theory allows for contextual factors. III. Intuitions as Antecedents Haidt's theory - innate intuitions are foundation for virtues if given learningopportunities. Proposed 4 moral modules: suffering, hierarchy, reciprocity, purity. Provide basis for manifest morality and virtues. Virtue Ethics in Business, I-O Psychology and Organizational Behavior I. Business Literature on virtue ethics in business grown extensively. Focuses on individual and organizational character. Virtue aids judgment where principles insufficient. Organization must balance internal and external goods. Virtue important for leadership.
II. I-O Psychology Little empirical research. Study of personality accelerated with Big Five model. Recent focus on "dark side" - leadership failure, abusive supervision. Examines dispositional causes and contextual influences.