IMPLICIT MOTIVES IN MOTIVATION RESEARCH Part 1: Understanding Implicit and Explicit Motives 1.1 Introduction Before delving into the role of implicit motives in sport and exercise, we mustunderstand motive research in general psychology. This understanding helps distinguish implicit motives from conscious, explicitmotives. Key topics include measurement methods, development of implicit motives,biopsychological explanations, and brain involvement. 1.2 Implicit and Explicit Motives Implicit and explicit motives represent distinct systems. Implicit motives are nonconscious, affectively toned preferences for specificincentives. Information processing for implicit motives is associative, parallel, and fast. In contrast, explicit motives involve conscious, cognitive, and evaluative self-attributions. Measurement methods for both systems differ significantly. Part 2: Differentiating Implicit and Explicit Motives 2.1 Distinctions Between Implicit and Explicit Motives Implicit and explicit motives differ in the incentives that arouse them. Incentives for implicit motives are often inherent in the sporting activity itself. For example, implicit achievement motives relate to meeting quality standardsand sporting challenges. Explicit motives are more tied to how one's actions align with self-concept andsocietal values. 2.2 Behavioral Predictions Implicit motives are strongly associated with long-term, spontaneously exhibitedbehavior and effort in sporting tasks.
Implicit motives energize athletes to perform better and engage repeatedly inactivities aligned with their motives. Explicit motives, on the other hand, are more linked to conscious choices andevaluations. 2.3 Measurement Methods Implicit motives cannot be directly measured by questionnaires. Indirect methods such as projective and reaction-time-related procedures areemployed. Projective procedures assess learned associations to social situations usingstimuli like pictures. Reaction-time-based procedures gauge motive strength through rapidassociations. Part 3: Predictive Value of Implicit and Explicit Motives 3.1 Long-Term Predictions Studies highlight the predictive value of implicit motives for long-term behavior. Implicit achievement motives, for instance, are essential for predicting prolongedperformance. Explicit motives tend to be more influential in situations with external demands onperformance quality. 3.2 Academic Context Research in academic contexts reveals differences between implicit and explicitachievement motives. Students with high implicit achievement motives perform better in concentrationtests. The implicit achievement motive influences task performance but not the decisionto continue a task. In contrast, the explicit achievement motive influences the decision to continuetasks. 3.3 Conclusion Understanding the interplay between implicit and explicit motives is essential forpredicting behavior in various contexts, including sports and academia.