IMPLICIT MOTIVES IN SPORT AND EXERCISE Part 1: Definitions and Basic Assumptions 1.1 Introduction to Implicit Motives In performance and health sports, understanding long-term behavioralpredictions is crucial. Behavioral predictions involve considering the probability of athletes maintainingperformance sport behavior over many years. Expectations play a significant role in predicting behaviors in sport settings. Motives and expectations are central to understanding athlete behavior. 1.2 Measuring Implicit Motives Implicit motives are inferred indirectly, often through picture story exercises. These motives are not consciously perceived by athletes. Implicit motives are unconscious, enduring preferences for specific incentiveclasses. They involve seeking situations that promise certain emotional experiences. 1.3 Functions of Implicit Motives Implicit motives serve three key functions: 1. Orient attention toward cue stimuli related to motive satisfaction. 2. Provide action energy. 3. Direct behavior toward specific classes of incentives. Emotions are integral to the relationship between implicit motives and behavior. Part 2: Types of Implicit Motives 2.1 Primary Motives in Sport Research in motive psychology has primarily focused on three motives:achievement, affiliation, and power. The achievement motive pertains to the desire for excellence and proficiency. The affiliation motive involves seeking positive social relationships. The power motive is about the desire to exert influence over others.
The implicit autonomy motive is gaining recognition, reflecting a preference forself-determination and independence. 2.2 Significance of the Autonomy Motive The implicit autonomy motive emphasizes the desire for psychological freedomand self-determination. It influences how individuals perceive themselves as the cause of their actions. Autonomy-supporting environments are critical for individuals with a high implicitautonomy motive. Well-being and motivation are optimized when the sports context aligns with theindividual's motivational structure. Part 3: Role of Implicit Motives in Sport and Exercise 3.1 Attention and Cue Stimuli Implicit motives direct attention to motive-relevant cues. Pictorial, nonverbal cues are especially effective. Individuals with high implicit motives recognize relevant cues more effectively. 3.2 Motives and Affect Motives and affect are closely connected. Motives enhance affect in the pursuit of motive-relevant incentives. Strong emotional and hormonal responses are observed in individuals with highimplicit motives. Implicit motives also influence anticipated affective states based on anticipatedbehavior.