MEASUREMENT OF SPORT MOTIVATION AND PROMOTING INTRINSIC MOTIVATION IN SPORTS Part 1: Measurement of Sport Motivation 1.1 Introduction to Sport Motivation Measurement The "Sport Motivation Scale" (SMS) and its revised version (SMS II) are rooted inOrganismic Integration Theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985). They assess various types of motivation: intrinsic, integrated, identified,introjected, external, and amotivated regulation. SMS demonstrates high internal consistency and construct validity in numerousstudies (Clancy et al., 2017). 1.2 Types of Sport Motivation The SMS measures motivation in the context of sports, reflecting different typesof motivation. Examples include intrinsic regulation (e.g., pleasure in learning about the sport),integrated regulation (e.g., sport as an integral part of life), identified regulation(e.g., sport as self-development), introjected regulation (e.g., feeling better whenparticipating), external regulation (e.g., reward from others), and amotivatedregulation (lack of clarity or interest). 1.3 Antecedents and Outcomes Different types of sport motivation have various consequences: Persistence in sport training Practice frequency Self-esteem Positive emotions Vitality Achievement goal orientations Part 2: Promoting Intrinsic Motivation in Sport 2.1 Strategies for Promoting Intrinsic Motivation 1. Provide successful and flow-conducive experiences :
Balancing personal athletic abilities with task difficulty. Enhancing feelings of competence and fostering flow experiences. 2. Give feedback contingent on performance : Feedback should focus on controllable aspects of performance. Informational feedback that enhances competence without control. 3. Use verbal and nonverbal praise : Praise as a motivator, especially for individuals lacking recognition. Informational praise to enhance feelings of competence without control. 4. Vary content and sequence of practice drills : Combat boredom and monotony by offering variety. Prevent dropout from sports programs due to monotony. 5. Involve participants in decision-making : Encourage athletes to participate in training and game strategy decisions. Increases the experience of autonomy, a basic psychological need. 6. Set realistic performance goals : Help individuals set achievable goals matching their skills. Facilitates success, autonomy, and intrinsic motivation. 2.2 Promoting Basic Need Satisfaction Satisfaction of basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence, socialrelatedness) fosters autonomous behavioral regulation, including intrinsicmotivation. Examples of promoting need satisfaction include understanding participants'perspectives, providing autonomy-supportive coaching, and creating anatmosphere of belonging. 2.3 Empowering Coaching™ Based on Self-Determination Theory (SDT), Empowering Coaching™ helpscoaches create need-supportive environments. Emphasizes autonomy support, social support, and task involvement.
Assessment tools to evaluate the motivational climate and impact of EmpoweringCoaching™ are available.