THE ROLE OF BASIC PSYCHOLOGICAL NEEDS AND ORGANISMIC INTEGRATION THEORY IN SPORTS MOTIVATION Part 1: Basic Psychological Needs in Sports 1.1 Understanding Basic Psychological Needs Three fundamental psychological needs: Autonomy, Competence, Socialrelatedness. Considered innate and universally important for mental and physical well-being. 1.2 Universality of Need Satisfaction Satisfaction of these needs is presumed to have similar positive effects acrosscultures and contexts. Evidence from sports and other areas of life supports the benefits of needsatisfaction. 1.3 Coaches and the Social Environment Coaches play a pivotal role in shaping the social environment of sports. Autonomy support by coaches is crucial for satisfying basic psychological needs. 1.4 Promoting Basic Need Satisfaction How coaches behave, support autonomy, and reduce external control affectsneed satisfaction. Positive coaching styles can foster intrinsic motivation and overall well-being. Part 2: The Psychological Need Thwarting 2.1 Basic Need Thwarting Basic need thwarting is distinct from low need satisfaction. Negative coach behaviors, such as excessive control or criticism, can thwartbasic needs and lead to need frustration. 2.2 Implications of Need Thwarting Need frustration can result in depressive symptoms, burnout, and negative affectin sports and physical activity. 2.3 Measuring Need Thwarting
The "Psychological Need Thwarting Scale" (PNTS) helps assess need thwartingbehavior by coaches and teammates. Part 3: Organismic Integration Theory (OIT) 3.1 Understanding OIT OIT distinguishes between controlled and autonomous motivation. It expands beyond intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. 3.2 Types of Motivation Controlled motivation includes external regulation (reward or punishment) andintrojected regulation (motivation driven by guilt or fear). Autonomous motivation encompasses identified regulation (acting based onpersonal values) and intrinsic motivation (engaging in an activity for its inherentenjoyment). 3.3 Internalization Internalization is the process by which individuals move along the motivationcontinuum. It involves endorsing the value of extrinsically motivated behaviors and shiftingtoward autonomous regulation. 3.4 Coaching for Internalization Coaches can foster internalization by creating environments that support basicpsychological need satisfaction. Autonomously motivated athletes tend to exhibit more desirable cognitive,behavioral, and affective outcomes.