EMPIRICAL FINDINGS IN SPORTS PERCEPTION Part 1: Influence of Performance on Perception Dart-Throwing and Target Perception Wesp et al. (2004) studied darts and target size perception. They found a correlation between dart-throwing performance and the perceivedsize of the target. Better performance led to the perception of a larger target. Softball and Hitting Performance Witt and Proffitt (2005) investigated softball players. After a game, players estimated the size of the ball they hit. A correlation was found between hitting performance and ball size perception. Golf and Performance-Specific Effects Witt et al. (2008) replicated similar findings in golf. Golfers' performance correlated with their perception of the ball's size. Part 2: Factors Affecting Performance-Specific Perception Visual Attention Alignment in Golf Cañal-Bruland et al. (2011) explored the role of visual attention alignment. Perception effects were found only when attention aligned with the action goal. Disruption of attention alignment led to the absence of perception-performancecorrelations. The Perceptual Accentuation Hypothesis Cañal-Bruland and van der Kamp (2009) proposed the perceptual accentuationhypothesis. It draws from Bruner's functional perception theory. Suggests that accentuating action goal objects influences perception. Part 3: Methodological Critique and Alternative Explanations Methodological Pitfalls
Firestone and Scholl (2015) identified methodological pitfalls in the research. Pitfall #2: Perception vs. Judgment - The difference between perceptualprocesses and judgment. Pitfall #3: Demand and Response Bias - Influence of participants' understandingof the study. Part 4: Debates and Challenges Evaluating the Evidence Firestone and Scholl (2016) argued that there's no study proving cognitioninfluences perception. Intense debate within behavioral and neuroscientific journals about theoreticaland methodological aspects. Future Directions Researchers must address methodological pitfalls. Bidirectional effects between perception and performance should be explored. Opportunities for new research directions in embodied perception and sportpsychology.