CHRONIC EFFECTS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ON COGNITION 4.5.2 Chronic Effects of Physical Activity on Cognition Introduction Positive correlation between physical activity and cognitive performance inschool-aged children and adults. Stronger correlation in primary school-age children. Cognitive performance improvement in older adults (55+) regardless ofintervention type, program length, training amount, and cognitive abilities. Effects of Physical Activity on Cognitive Development Positive correlation between physical activity and cognitive development inchildhood and adolescence. Influence of physical activity on brain anatomy: Larger hippocampal volume associated with better memory performance. Larger basal ganglia volume linked to improved attention performance. Benefits for executive control tasks. Neurophysiological changes indicating faster information processing. Enhanced brain communication due to regular physical training. Physical Activity in Older Adults Cognitive performance decline in older adults, including reduced informationprocessing speed and working memory. Endurance-trained older individuals demonstrate better cognitive performance. Functional changes in the brain, such as improved connectivity between differentbrain areas. Positive impact on gray and white matter preservation, particularly in the frontal,parietal, temporal areas, and hippocampus. Potential benefits of coordination training. Reflection on Cognitive Performance Improvement Complex cause-and-effect relationships between physical activity and cognition.
Biological mechanisms underlying physical activity's effects on cognition,including neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, and increased production ofneurotrophins. Capillarization and its role in cognitive improvement. The impact of cognitive resources previously allocated to motor skills on cognitivetasks. Influence of acute exercise on cognitive states and potential hormonal factors. Factors moderating the influence of physical activity on cognitive functions. 4.6 Multitasking Introduction to Multitasking Constant exposure to double or multiple tasks in everyday life and sports. Examples of multitasking scenarios in daily life and sports. Cognitive challenges posed by multitasking. Multitasking in Neuroscientific Research Dual-task paradigms and their study using brain imaging techniques. Methodological difficulties in MRI to separate dual-task activation from single-taskactivation. Importance of behavioral studies for assessing gait performance and cognitiveperformance independently. Decline in cognitive resources and executive functions with increasing age. Dual-Task Paradigms in Gerontology Use of dual-task paradigms in gerontology research. Areas of focus in gerontological studies, including driving performance, fine motorskills, and fall prevention. Examples of combining motor and cognitive tasks to investigate automation inmovements. Application of dual-task paradigms in sports research.