Implicit Learning and Motor SkillAcquisition Implicit Learning: Acquiring Knowledge Unconsciously Understanding Implicit Learning Implicit learning involvesacquiring knowledge unintentionally, withoutawareness of the learningprocess. In contrast to explicitknowledge acquisition,implicit learning lacksconscious awareness. Examples include language acquisition inchildren and learningsoccer skills "on thestreet." Side Story: Implicit Learning ofAction Sequences Implicit Learning of ActionSequences Complex action sequencescan be acquired implicitly. The serial-reaction-time(SRT) task is used to testimplicit learning. Participants respond tostimuli with keystrokes. Associations between sequence elements are formed (chunking) withoutconscious awareness. Shorter SRTs indicatefaster execution of theentire action sequence. Replacement of thelearned sequence with anew one leads to a rise inSRT, showing that thewhole action sequencewas learned implicitly. Cognitive Models of Learning Cognitive Models of EarlyLearning Phases Cognitive models suggestearly learning phases relyon limited informationprocessing resources (e.g., working memory). Spatially coded representations are transformed into motorcommands. Working memory- independentrepresentations (e.g., motor programs) developfor later motor skill control. Designing Teaching and LearningProcesses in Sports Learning Processes in Sports Learning in sports coversmotor skill acquisition, rule
knowledge, and tacticalunderstanding. Focus on motor learningprocesses for acquiringmotor skills. Learning Phases and Motor LearningProcesses Motor Learning Processes andPhases Motor learning processesinvolve changes inmemory relevant for motorcontrol. Representations change interms of behavioralcompetence, coding, neural substrates, andmode of control. Early and late learningphases are characterizedby different neural substrates and controlmodes. Dual-task costs decreaseas learning progresses.