Introduction to Observational Learning Variables Observational Learning Defined Observational learning involves acquiring skillsand knowledge throughthe observation of successful movementsand actions, often demonstrated through videos or live demonstrations by instructors. Two Processing Routes inObservational Learning Visual and Spatial Processing Observations can lead tovisually and spatiallycoded representations,requiring working memoryand transformation intomotor commands. Selective attention plays acrucial role in focusing onrelevant elements of theobserved movement. Strategies like slow-motion, still images, andattentional cues canenhance the visuomotortransformation process. Ideomotor Processes Ideomotor processes, facilitated by the mirrorneuron system, enable thetransformation of visualperceptions into motorrepresentations. Action observations activate correspondingmotor representations, aiding imitation withoutimmediate execution. The Influence of ObservationPerspective Neuronal Activation andImitation Performance The perspective fromwhich movements areobserved affects neuralresonance of motorrepresentations. Brain areas related toobserved movements aremore activated whenviewed egocentrically compared to viewing froma different perspective. Increased model-observerdisparity may requiremental rotation processes,potentially interfering withmotor planning andexecution. Instruction Modalities Visual Instruction
Visual forms of instructionare suitable for conveyingspatial structures. Examples include videodemonstrations, still images, and graphicalcues. Acoustic Instruction Acoustic instruction iseffective for conveyingtemporal structures due tothe auditory sense's hightemporal resolution. Sonification, convertingmovement measurementsinto music, is one method. Multimodal models, combining audio andvisual components, areparticularly effective.