FAILURES OF AWARENESS INSPORTS I. Introduction Awareness is a crucialcomponent of sports performance. Failures of awareness can lead tomissed opportunities and errors. Several types of failures ofawareness: Deliberate inhibition (not afailure). Subliminal information (below conscious perception). Failure to allocate attentionproperly. II. Types of Failures of Awareness 1. Change Blindness Participants fail to perceivechanges in an image whenattention is not focused onthat area. Originates from the spatialabsence of attention. Example: Flickering images with unnoticedchanges. 2. Attentional Blink A target stimulus is notconsciously perceived when another target ispresented shortly before. Originates from a temporalabsence of attention. Example: Missing a targetdue to a brief gap inattention. 3. Inattentional Blindness Failure of awareness whena stimulus unexpectedlyappears while attention isfocused elsewhere. Common in everyday lifeand sports. Example: Not noticing anopen player while focusingon the ball. III. Insights from Sports Studies Memmert (2006) and Furley et al.(2010) found that basketballexperts are less prone toinattentional blindness in basketball situations thannovices. Increased perceptual capacity isspecific to expertise in aparticular sport and doesn'tgeneralize. Factors influencing failures ofawareness in sports:
Expertise in the sportenhances detection. More salient objects aredetected more easily. Specific tactical instructions may increaseor decrease the probabilityof detecting unexpectedobjects. Children up to 10 years oldare particularly susceptibleto missing unexpectedobjects. Extreme physical arousalcan lead to more failuresof awareness. IV. Importance of Broad Attention inSports Players need a broad focus ofattention to make tacticaldecisions and integrate originalsolutions. Recognizing unexpectedly unmarked players is essential. Coaches' instructions, whilehelpful, can sometimes narrowplayers' focus of attention andreduce flexibility. V. Increasing the Number of ActionAlternatives The number of decision-makingsolutions increases with thenumber of game elements anathlete can attend to. This enhances unpredictability foropponents and improves performance. VI. Conclusion Failures of awareness arecommon in sports and everydaylife. Expertise, salience, tacticalinstructions, and arousal influence awareness. A broad focus of attention and theability to recognize unmarkedplayers are essential for successin sports.