The History of Human Evolution the history of human evolution Tracing the Origins of Homo sapiens:Major Transitions of Human Evolutionary HistoryHuman evolution from scientists and the public for centuries. This note providesan overview of current scientific understanding of when, where and how modernhumans evolved from earlier hominin ancestors. Fossil evidence indicates hominins diverged from other great apes roughly 6-8million years ago in Africa. Several extinct early hominin species have beenidentified based on discoveries of partial skeletons and bone fragments (Wood &Baker, 2011). Habilis and ergaster were likely the first to use stone tools and eatmeat, exhibiting increased brain size compared to apes (Antón & Swisher, 2004). A major transition occurred with the emergence of Homo erectus 1.5-2 millionyears ago. Erectus had modern human-like body proportions and was the firstknown hominin to migrate out of Africa (Anton et al., 2014). Populations spreadas far as Asia, indicating increased adaptability. The ability of erectus to harnessfire for cooking and tool creation also dramatically impacted development(Wrangham, 2009). Around 300,000 years ago, archaic Homo sapiens evolved with larger brains andmore sophisticated tools. Neanderthals later emerged as a distinct Europeanpopulation adapted to colder climates (Verna et al., 2012). They coexisted andinterbred to an extent with anatomically modern Homo sapiens arising~200,000 years ago in Africa (Sankararaman et al., 2012). Modern humansshowed expanded cognitive and social abilities compared to prior hominins. Scientists have debated about the factors that allowed Human to breed andmigrate around the world while other hominins became extinct. Proposedexplanations include developments in language, cooperative social structures andcultural learning that increased survival (Zilhão et al., 2010). Environmentalpressures and population growth likely also drove migration out of Africa~60,000 years ago to inhabit new continents (Stringer, 2003).
In Conclution, Continued fossil discoveries and analyses of our genetic relationships to extinct hominins are further illuminating the complex historythat produced anatomically and behaviorally modern Homo sapiens.Understanding our long evolutionary path provides perspective on attributes thatmake humans unique.