Basic Data Data Definition Data is a collection of facts, such as numbers, words, measurements, observations or just descriptions of things. Data is Individual units of information. Data is Organized in matrix: row: represents an observation or a case column: represents a variable. Type of Data Variable A. Category 1. Nominal Nominal scales are used for labeling variables, without any quantitative value. “Nominal” scales could simply be called “labels.” (Ex: Male-Female, Color, Occupation). 2. Ordinal The order of the values is what’s important and significant, but the differences between each one is not really known. (Ex: Feeling, Satisfaction, Grade of Education). B. Numeric 1. Discrete Discrete data represent items that can be counted; they take on possible values that can be listed out. The list of possible values may be fixed (also called finite); or it may go from 0, 1,2, on to infinity (making it countably infinite). (Ex : Number of Student, Number of Vehicle, etc.) 2. Continues Continuous data represent measurements; their possible values cannot be counted and can only be described using intervals on the real number line. (Ex: Height, Temperature, Velocity, etc.)
Data Structures 1. Structured Data Structured Data Example are name, dates, stock information, Geo-location, etc. a. Row Row represent a single entity and its all attribute b. Column Column contain a single value and represent a single attribute c. Table Table is a set of information which contain rows (entities) and column (attributes) 2. Unstructured Data Unstructured Data Example are text files and documents, server, website and application logs, sensor data, images, video files, audio files, emails, social media data, etc. Data Categories 1. Quantitative Data Quantitative Data are made with instruments such as rulers, balances, graduated cylinders, beakers, and thermometers. These results are measurable (number). 2. Qualitative Data Qualitative Data use your sense to observe the results.